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77 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is Not True regarding the lymphatic system?


- removes excess fluids from the tissues


- absorbs fats from the digestive tract


- defends the body against microorganisms and other foreign substances


- produces erythrocytes


- circulates lymphatic fluid throughout the body

Produces erythrocytes

Microscopic closed end tubes in the lymphatic system composed of simple squamous epithelium are called?


-capillaries


-vessels


-ducts


-all of these


-non of these

Capillaries

Lymph is returned to the blood circulatory system through the


-hepatic portal system


-subclavian veins


-abdominal aorta


-inferior vena cava

Subclavian Veins

Which of the following correctly lists the structures according to the sequence of fluid flow?


Blood Capillaries


Interstitial Spaces


Lymphatic Capillaries


Lymphatic Vessels


Lymphatic Ducts


Subclavian Veins

What is the largest lymphatic tissue?

Spleen

Lacteals are found in the?

Small Intestines



Which of the following would not be associated with non-specific resistance (Innate Immunity)

Inflammation

Which of these conditions does not occur as a result of the inflammatory response?

Vasconstriction of blood vessels

Which of the following is NOT paired correctly with it's function


-spleen--acts as a blood and platelet reservoir


-lymphatic vessel--circulates lymphatic fluid


-Thymus gland--location for maturation and proliferation of B-cells


-tonsils--protects against microorganisms





Thymus Gland--T-lymphocytes and T-cells

Plasma cells are a form of

B-cells

Antibodies are directly produced from which type of cell?

Plasma cells

The following are characteristics of antigens except

They can destroy bacteria by phagocytosis

The type of lymphocyte that is responsible for the secondary antibody response is the

Memory B cell

Receiving an immunization with an altered form of the influenza virus results in

artificially acquired active immunity

Which type of hemoglobin is represented by the highest percentage and crosses the placenta to the fetus?

IgG

Which of the following conditions describes an immune system that is overly reactive to substances tolerated by others?

Hypersensitivity

Which of the following is a function of the respiratory system?

Elimination of nitrogen waste (ex. ammonia)

What is the correct sequence for the passageway of air through the respiratory system?




-Trachea - Terminal Bronchioles


-Nasal Cavity - Alveolar Sacs


-Alveolus -Secondary Bronchi


-Primary Bronchi



Nasal Cavity


Trachea


Primary Bronchi


Secondary Bronchi


Terminal Bronchioles


Alveolar Sacs


Alveolus

Which of the following are true regarding the true vocal cords?

-They are Found in the larynx


-Vibrations of the anterior folds=increase frequency and pitch


-Vibrations of the longer sections=decrease frequency and pitch



What are the purpose of the cartilage rings?

Prevents the trachea from collasping

The conduction zone of the tracheobronchial tree ends at the

Terminal Bronchioles

This is the primary gas exchange site

Alveolus

Which of the following cells of the alveoli produce surfactant?

Type 2 Alveolar cells

When the inhalation muscle contract...

The size of the thoracic cavity increases in length




The size of the thoracic cavity increases in diameter

Exhalation begins when

Inspiratory muscle relaxes

During the process of expiration/exhalation, the alveolar pressure is

Greater than the barometric pressure

Pulmonary surfactant acts to

-Lower the surface tension of the alveoli


-Prevent the barometric pressure


-Prevent dehydration of the alveolar surface


- Keep the alveoli from sticking together

This means the lung and chest wall expand easily

High Compliance

This part of the pharynx extends from the nasal cavity to the soft palate

nasopharynx

You are traveling in a space capsule that has lost all power to control the atmosphere. If the pressure inside the capsule is now 900mmHg and the concentration of oxygen is 20%, what would the PO2 be?

180mmHg

Given these lung volumes, calculate the vital capacity


1. Tidal volume=500ml


2. Inspiratory reserve volume=2500ml


3. Residual Volume=100ml


4. Expiratory reserve volume=100ml


5. Dead Space=100ml

4000ml



Which of the following is incorrect


-decrease surface area in the alveoli, decrease rate of gas exchange


-Increase the partial pressure differences of gases, decrease rate of gas exchange


-increase the diffusion distance across the respiratory membrane, decrease the rate of gas exchange


-Increase the partial pressure difference of gases, increase rate of gas exchange

Increase the partial pressure differences of gases, decrease rate of gas exchange

Which of the following would increase hemoglobin's ability to bind oxygen?


-decrease in temperature


-increase in blood pH


-decrease in blood CO2 concentration


-All of These

All of these

Oxygen is mostly transported in the blood

bound to hemoglobin

Most of the CO2 is transported in the blood is

in the plasma as the bicarbonate ion (HCO3)

An enzyme that speeds up the reaction of carbon dioxide and water:


CO2+H2O<-->H2CO3?

Carbonic Anhydrase

When bicarbonate ion diffuses out of red blood cells into plasma, it is usually exchanged with which ion

Chloride

The respiratory areas that controls the basic rhythm of respiration and transitions between inhalation and exhalation are located in the

pons & medulla oblongata

The chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies:


-affects the respiratory center when blood carbon dioxide levels change


-affects the respiratory center when blood pH changes


- affects the respiratory center when blood oxygen levels change


- All of these

All of these

The residual volume is the amount of air

remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

The tidal volume is

Volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in a single quiet breath

Results in the loss of cilia, increases accumulation of mucus

Whooping Cough

Results in the formation of a grayish membrane in the throat

Diphtheria

An inherited disorder that affects secretory cells and increases mucus formation

Cystic Fibrosis

Controls the ability to voluntarily hold your breath

cerebral cortex

Collapse of lungs in premature infants

Respiratory Distress syndrome

The blood flow resistance in the efferent arteriole is greater than the blood flow resistance in the afferent arteriole

True

Fever production enhances the activities of the immune system

True

The fluid from blood capillaries that is found between cells is called lymph

False

A graph versus host rejection occurs when the recipient recognizes the donor tissue as foreign

False

Adaptive or specific immunity responds exactly the same each time the body encounters certain microorganisms and harmful chemicals

False

What is not a general function of the kidneys

regulation of blood cell size

Process of expelling urine from the urinary bladder

Micturition

What is the correct sequence as urine leaves the nephron and travels to the outside of the body

Renal Papilla


Minor Calyx


Major Calyx


Renal Pelvis


Ureter


Urinary Bladder


Urethra



Which of the following muscles is involved in the voluntary control of urination

External Urinary Sphincter

The entire functional subunit of a kidney that purifies blood and restores solute and water balance is called the

Nephron

What is the correct order of vessels of blood flow

Renal Artery


Afferent Arteriole


Glomerulus


Efferent Arteriole


Peritubular Capillaries


Renal Vein

Which of the following contains blood

Glomerulus

The juxtaglomerular cells of the _____ and the macula densa cells of the ____ form the juxtaglomerular apparatus

Afferent arterioles; Ascending Loop of Henle (LH)

Given the following structures; what is the correct path the filtrate takes from the time it enters bowman capsule until it reaches the ureters


Loop of Henle


Collecting Duct


Proximal Convoluted Tubule


Distal Convoluted Tubule



Proximal Convoluted Tubule


Loop of Henle


Distal Convoluted Tubule


Collecting Duct

Which of these is located in the medulla of the kidney



Loops Of Henle

Kidney function includes which of these processes?


-Filtration


-Absorption


-Secretion


-All of These

All of these

The process of reabsorption during the formation of urine ensures that


glucose, salts, and water are returned to the blood

Filtration of the blood in the kidney takes place in the

Bowman's Capsule

All of the following are factors in the glomerular filter except

Microvilli

On average, how much urine is produced in 24 hours

1-2 liters

The primary means of water movement between fluid compartment is

osmosis

Approximately what percentage of the total glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed

99%

Aldosterone stimulates the tubule to reabsorb

Na+ (Sodium)



Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Which of the following is not a mechanism that controls the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Chemical regulation of ions

When angiotensin II is present in the blood, it stimulates an increase in blood pressure by




-Increasing aldosterone secretion


-Causing vasoconstriction of the arterioles


-Increasing blood volume


-All of these

All of these

ADH production

causes and increase permeability of kidney tubules (nephrons) to water

Which of the following is not an effect of aging on the urinary bladder

Secretion Increases

Normal blood pH is

7.4

The cough reflex is triggered by irritation near an important medical landmark called the

Carina

During an asthma attack, the patient has difficulty breathing because of the constriction of the

Terminal Bronchioles