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361 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

A substance made of only one type of atom is called a(n) _____________.

Element

Name the element represented by each chemical symbol:

Fe Na P

Fe = Iron
Na = Sodium
P = Phosphorus

The most abundant compound in the human body is___________.

Water

What three things are needed for a balanced chemical state of the body?

Acids, bases, and buffers.

What are the three regulatory systems of the body that control shifts in the pH of body fluids?

Buffer, respiratory and renal systems.

A ________ is regarded as a "chemical sponge".

Buffer

The smallest part of an *element* that still retains the properties of that element is a(n) ____________.

Atom

The kind of change that produces a new substance is a __________ change.

Chemical

The _________ is considered the basic unit of life.

Cell

What is the neutral pH?

7

An increase in __________ ions makes a solution more acidic.

Hydrogen (H+)

What is the substance of all living material?

Protoplasm

Proto = original
plasm = sunstance

Which organelle functions as the "protein factories" in the cell?

Ribosomes

Which organelle surrounds the cell and is semipermeable?

Cell membrane

Which organelle is the "mini circulatory system" of the cell that is a complex tunnel system?

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Which organelle is the "packaging plant" of the cell that packages the substance and is exported from the cell?

Golgi apparatus

Which organelle is the "housekeeper" of the cell, releasing enzymes that destroy foreign material within the cell?

Lysosome

(think Lysol)

Which organelle acts as the "power plant" of the cell that is sausage shaped and where ATP (energy) is stored?

Mitochondria

The tiny, hair-like projections on the surface of the cell that aids in movement are ________.

Cilia and flagella

The "control center" of a cell; also the largest organelle that has a nuclear membrane, is semi-permeable, and where chromosomes are stored is _______.

Nucleus

The organelle that is the specialized region where RNA and ribosomes are temporarily stored is the _________.

Nucleolus

Is the elbow considered proximal or distal to the shoulder?

Distal

Three types of muscle tissues are:

1. Smooth
2. Skeletal
3. Cardiac

What part of the body is the thorax referring to?

Chest

Blood is what kind of tissue?

Connective

What kind of membrane lines all passageways to the A) outside of the body? B) closed structures of the body?

A)Mucous
B)Serous

Standing erect, arms at sides, palms facing forward and feet slightly apart means the patient is in ____________.

Anatomical position

Organize the following terms from the smallest to largest:

tissues, organs, cells, molecules, organisms

molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms

Which of the following is not an abdominal region?

right iliac, hypogastric, deltoid, epigastric, umbilical, left hypochondriac

deltoid

Which organ system allows you to grin, frown, run and carry books?

Muscular system

Which organ system breaks down ingested food into its building blocks?

Digestive system

Which organ system rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes and regulates the composition of blood?

Urinary system

The balanced chemical state of the body is called ___________.

Homeostasis

The two fluid compartments of the body are:

1. Intracellular
2. Extracellular

Groups of cells with similar structure and functions are __________.

Tissues

Name the four tissue types.

1) E---
2) C---
3) N---
4) M---

1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Nervous
4) Muscle

The body is divided into two large cavities. They are:

Dorsal and Ventral cavities

Which body quadrant houses the appendix?

Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

What is the name of the plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts?

Transverse

The largest group of pathogens?

Bacteria

The smallest infectious agents that can't reproduce unless taken over by a living cell are called ___________.

Viruses

What is one of the bodies natural defense mechanisms against viral infections?

Interferon

What are the 6 classes of microorganisms?

1) P--
2) F-- (including mold and yeast)
3) B--
4) V--
5) R--
6) M--

1) Protozoa
2) Fungi
3) Bacteria
4) Viruses
5) Rickettsiae
6) Metazoa

What pH does bacteria grow best at?

Neutral to slightly alkaline

The average generation time for most bacteria is __________.

30 minutes

A structure in bacteria that is resistant to drying, boiling, and most chemicals is a ____________.

Spore

What is a poisonous substance produced by some forms of bacteria?

Toxin

Which classification do helminths come under?

Metazoa

Organisms that live within, upon, or at the expense of another living organism are called ________.

Parasites

An infection confined to one spot is referred to as a ___________ infection.

Local

A _______ infection is inactive or hidden and may show symptoms at a later date.

Latent

Heat is applied to an area of infection to _______ blood vessels and _______ blood supply to the area so healing can occur.

Dilate; Increase

The period of time between entrance of an organism to the body and the actual onset of symptoms is known as the ______________ stage.

Incubation

To stimulate the body's production of antibodies, it is necessary to introduce an ________.

Antigen

A person who has recovered from a disease, but continues to shed the pathogen is called a ______.

Carrier

A __________ infection is one which has been acquired in a hospital or other institution.

Nosocomial

What is the difference between an acute and chronic infection?

Acute = short, severe course

Chronic = Slow, over a period of time; can recur

An infection that has spread throughout the body from an initial site is called a __________ infection.

Systemic

The type of immunity which is obtained when an individual receives a tetanus shot is called _____ ________ _______ immunity.

Specific artificial active (immunity)

What are the three layers of the skin?

Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous (SubQ)

Which glands are called the *oil* producing glands?

Sebaceous glands

What substance provides the skin with its pigmentation?

Melanin

Cerumen (ear wax) is produced from which glands? Where is it found?

Ceruminous glands; external ear

The vitamin produced through the skin when exposed to sunlight is vitamin ____.

D

Which layer of skin is actually referred to as the "true skin"?

Dermis

The term ________ refers to redness of the skin

Erythema

Nerve endings are located in which layer of the skin?

Dermis


The ends of the fingers and toes are protected from injury by an appendage of the skin known as the ________.

Nails

What substance provides energy for muscle contraction and is also stored in the muscle tissue?

ATP

The less movable end of a muscle is the ______.

Origin

The more movable end of a muscle is ________.

Insertion

The middle part of a muscle is called the ______.

Body

Which system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood?

Respiratory system

Which system forms a framework with the movable joints that are moved by muscles?

Skeletal System

Which system transmits impulses to skeletal muscles to bring about contractions?

Nervous system

Which system transports oxygen to muscles and takes carbon dioxide away?

Circulatory system

Antagonistic muscles have _________ functions.

Opposing

Muscles are attached to bones by the structures called ________.

Tendons

Muscle tone is the state of _______ ________ that is usually present in healthy muscles.

Partial contraction

The neuromuscular junction is the junction of a _________ and a ________.

Nerve and muscle

What Elyte is essential for muscle contraction?

Calcium (Ca)

A sustained muscle contraction is called _____.

Tetanic (tetany)

the muscle action which bends a body part on itself is called ______.

Flexion

The muscle action which takes a part away from the body is called __________.

Abduction

The large muscle of the anterior thigh made up of 4 divisions is called the _______ ______.

Quadriceps femoris

The cells responsible for bone growth are called ___________.

Osteoblasts

The exterior covering of bones, except in joints is called __________.

Periosteum

Bones are attached to other bones by structures called ___________.

Ligaments

Bones contain ______ and ________ marrow.

Which type of marrow is made up largely of fatty tissue?

Yellow and red

Yellow

What are the five classifications of bones?

1) L--
2) S--
3) F--
4) I--
5) F--

1) Long
2) Short
3) Flat
4) Irregular
5) Floating

The process of bone replacement of another tissue is called ___________.

Ossification

At birth, growth of the long bones is not complete. In these bones, what is the site in which growth will continue?

Epiphysis

What are the four substances necessary for healthy bone development?

1) Ca =
2) P =
3) F =
4) Vitamin ____

1) Calcium
2) Phosphorus
3) Flouride
4) Vitamin D

Name the two divisions of the human skeleton

Axial and Apendicular

What part of the skeleton protects the brain and spinal cord?

Cranium & Vertebral column

Which part of the skeleton protects the heart, lungs, spleen and liver from mechanical injury?

thoracic cage

What is the longest and strongest bone in the body?

Femur

What are the three bones of the middle ear?

1) M--
2) I--
3) S--

1) Malleus
2) Incus
3) Stapes

The lines of the skull are appropriately called _______.

Suture lines

Which type of joint is a freely movable joint?

Diarthrosis

What type of joint is found between the pelvis and the femur?

Ball & Socket

What type of joint is found between the two pubic bones?

Amphiarthrosis

the study of the digestive system is called _____________.

Gastroenterology

Another name for the gastrointestinal tract is the __________ canal.

Alimentary

Name the three accessory organs of the digestive system.

Pancreas, liver and gallbladder

Baby teeth are also known as ________ teeth. There are about _____ (#) of these.

Deciduous; 20

The second set of teeth are called _______ teeth and there are usually ____ (#) of these.

Permanent; 32

The hardest surface of the tooth is called the ________.

Enamel

What are the two types of digestion?

Chemical and mechanical

Name the three sets of salivary glands.

1) P--
2) Subm--
3) Subl--

1) Parotid
2) Submandibular
3) Sublingual

The tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach which carries food is called the ________.

Esophagus

The ring-like muscles which allow food to enter the stomach also to leave the stomach after partial digestion are called the _____ and ______ sphincter, respectively.

Cardiac; Pyloric

______ are the folds in the stomach which allow for distention of the stomach when it's full.

Rugae

The _____ is the largest internal organ of the body and is located on the _____ side of the body.

Liver; right

An important substance manufactured by the liver and stored in the _______ is responsible for the digestion of fats.

Gallbladder

Bile leaves the *liver* through the _______ duct, which joins the _______ duct of the gall*bladder* to form the ______ ______ duct, which caries bile to the ____________ of the small intestine. *whew*

Hepatic; cystic; common bile; duodenum

The pancreas is located in the upper abdominal cavity between the _________ (liver) and the _______.

Duodenum; spleen

Wave-like contractions that move food along the digestive tract is called __________.

Parastalsis

The majority of digestion occurs in the ______ ____________.

Small intestine

What are the three sections of the small intestine?

1) D--
2) J--
3) I--

1)Duodenum
2) Jejunum
3) Ileum

the structures that increase the surface are of the *small intestine* for absorpbtion are called _______.

Villi

The absorption of vitamin ____ requires the _________ factor produced by the stomach lining.

B-12; intrinsic

Blood from the capillary networks in the small intestine travels through the portal vein to the ________ before returning to the heart

Liver

The large intestine is also called the _____.

Colon

the section of the large intestine that the appendix is attached to is the ______ and is the ______ section of the large intestine.

Cecum; first

The colon functions to absorb ___________, __________, and _______ ________ and for the elimination of __________.

Water; Vitamins; mineral salts; waste

Which vitamin is synthesized in the colon and aids in blood clotting?

Vitamin K

The stimulus for defecation is stretching of the __________ as parastalsis of the colon pushes feces into it.

Rectum

Voluntary control of defecation is provided by the _________ ____________, which contracts to close the anus.

External sphincter

Transportation of the blood carries ____ from the lungs to tissues, and ______ from tissues to lungs.

Oxygen; Carbon dioxide

Regulation of the blood maintains ______/______ balance and _______

Acid/base; temperature

Protection of the blood incudes fighting __________.

Infection

the amount of blood within the body varies with size of the person; this amount is in the range of __.__ liters.

5.6

The pH range of blood is slightly ______.

Alkaline

the oxygen carrying protein of RBC's is _________.

Hemoglobin

The mineral needed for chemical clotting is __________.

Calcium

The protein that helps maintain blood volume by pulling tissue fluid into capillaries is __________.

Albumin

Name the 5 types of WBC's

1) N---phils
2) E--phils
3) B--phils

4) L--cytes
5) M--cytes

1) Neutrophils
2) Eosinophils
3) Basophils

4) Lymphocytes
5) Monocytes

Which two types of WBC's are agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes and Monocytes

WBC's function mainly to ______ ________.

Destroy pathogens

__________ are also called thrombocytes and are most important in blood clotting.

Platelets

The stimulus for the formation of a blood clot is a __________ platelet

Ruptured

The common blood type is ___, with a ____ Rh factor.

O; positive (+)

What type blood is the universal donor?

O negative

What type blood is the universal recipient?

AB Positive

The normal value of RBC's is?

4,500,000- 5,000,000

The normal value for WBC's is?

5,000-10,000

The normal value for Hgb (hemoglobin) is what percentage?

12-18%

The normal value for Hct (hematocrit) is what percentage?

38-50%

the normal value for platelets is?

200,000 - 400,000

The life span of RBC's is ______ days while the lifespan of WBC's is ___________.

120; hours - a lifetime

The major regulating factor for RBC production is the amount of ______ in the blood.

Oxygen

The heart is about the size of a ______ ______ and is located in an area between the lungs known as the ___________.

Man's fist; mediastinum

What are the 3 layers of the heart?

1) P--
2) M--
3) E--

1) Pericardium
2) Myocardium
3) Endocardium

What layer of the heart is the muscle layer?

Myocardium

Which layer of the heart makes up the valces and inner lining of the heart?

Endocardium

What are the 4 chambers of the heart?

1) R.A.
2) R.V.
3) L.A.
4) L.V.

1) Right Atrium
2) Right Ventricle
3) Left Atrium
4) Left Ventricle

What is the dividing wall of the heart called?

Septum

Which chamber receives venous blood returning from all areas of the body?

Right Atrium

What is the semi-lunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta?

Aortic valve

Normal heart sounds are described as _____ and _____ and are related to the _______ and _________ of the valves.

lubb; dupp; opening; closing

Oxygen enriched blood from the lungs via the pulmonary vein empties into the________ ________.

Left atrium

The ________ valve, also called the bicuspid valve, prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium.

Mitral

Which chamber of the heart pumps blood to the entire body and is known as the thickest walled chamber of the heart?

Left ventricle

The largest artery of the body is the ________.

Aorta

The heart muscle receives the richest supply of the blood via the _________ arteries.

Coronary

The smallest arteries are called __________.

Arterioles

The smallest veins are called __________.

Venules

Arterioles and venules are connected by _________ which are one cell layer thick.

Capillaries

The ________ have one-way valves, which control the flow of blood back to the heart.

Veins

The pacemaker of the heart is the ___ _____.

SA node

What parts of the electrical system stimulates the ventricles to contract?

1) P-- fibers
2) ___ node
3) Bundle of ____

1) Purkinje fibers
2) AV node
3) Bundle of His

the cardiac cycle is the term for the sequence of events in one __________.

Complete heartbeat

The cardiac centers are located in the ________ of the brain.

Medulla

the outermost of the pericardial membranes is the ___________ _____________

Parietal pericardium

What are the 4 tissues of the lymphatic system within the circulatory system?

1) S--
2) T--
3) L--
4) T--

1) Spleen
2) Tonsils
3) Lymphatics
4) Thymus

The spleen is not _______ for life.

Essential

The thymus gland, which is not usually visible after puberty, is thought to produce __ ____ which are important in the immune response of the body.

T cells

Which vein is usually used for coronary artery bypass grafts?

Saphenous

Which two directions of blood flow are there?

Systole and Diastole

The exchange of gases between the living organism and its environment is called ________.

Respiration

__________ respiration is when the diaphragm and intercostals contract, causing the lungs to inflate.

Active respiration

__________ respiration is when the diaphragm and intercostals relax, causing the lungs to be compressed.

Inactive respiration

The working unit of the respiratory system is the ___________.

Alveoli

The area at which the bronchi enter the lungs is the ______.

Hilum or hilus

Which bronchus is more vertical than the other?

Right bronchus

The structure in the trachea which prevents food from entering the respiratory tract is called the _______.

Epiglottis

The membrane that covers the lungs is the _________.

Pleura

Pleura is considered a __________ membrane.

Serous

The lungs lie in the _________ cavity and are protected by the ________.

Thoracic; ribs

The space between the lungs is called the __________.

Mediastinum

Surfactant prevents the alveoli from ________.

Collapsing

the respiratory centers are located in the brain, in the __________ and _______.

Medulla; pons

The nerve that controls the diaphragm is the _______ nerve.

Phrenic

the two respiratory gases are ______ and _____ _______.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide

A deep breath requires a more forceful ___________ of muscles, which in turn would bring about greater expansion of the _______.

Contraction; lungs

The normal rate of respirations ranges from _____ to _____/minute

12-20

Two mechanisms the body has to remove irritating/foreign materials from the respiratory system are the _______ and the ________.

Cough; sneeze

The respiratory tract is lined with _______ membrane.

Mucous

The trachea is kept open by __-shaped rings numbered ___-____.

C; 15-20

Which lung has 3 lobes?

Right

The CNS consists of the ______ and ______ _______.

Brain; spinal cord

The PNS consists of the __________ nerves and the __________ nerves.

Cranial; spinal

The ANS is part of the ______.

PNS

The term that means "nerve cell" is ________.

Neuron

A deep breath requires a more forceful ___________ of muscles, which in turn would bring about greater expansion of the _______.

Contraction; lungs

The normal rate of respirations ranges from _____ to _____/minute

12-20

Two mechanisms the body has to remove irritating/foreign materials from the respiratory system are the _______ and the ________.

Cough; sneeze

The respiratory tract is lined with _______ membrane.

Mucous

The trachea is kept open by __-shaped rings numbered ___-____.

C; 15-20

Which lung has 3 lobes?

Right

The CNS consists of the ______ and ______ _______.

Brain; spinal cord

The PNS consists of the __________ nerves and the __________ nerves.

Cranial; spinal

The ANS is part of the ______.

PNS

The term that means "nerve cell" is ________.

Neuron

What are the 3 major parts of a neuron?

1) C-- B--
2) D--
3) A--

1) Cell body
2) Dendrites
3) Axons

_______ carries impulses *away* from the cell body

Axons

____ _____ contains the nucleus of the neuron.

Cell body

______ carries impulses toward the cell body.

Dendrites

The space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the cell body of the next neuron is called the __________.

Synapse

the myelin sheath functions to speed impulse ________ and ________.

Conduction; insulate

The neurilemma permits ________ of damaged axons of the PNS.

Regeneration

The most common neurotransmitter is __________ and it is released by synaptic knobs in order to carry nerve ______.

Acetylcholine; impulses

A reflex arc is the __________ form of a neural response.

Simplest

What Elyte is important in nerve transmission?

Calcium

What vitamin is necessary for healthy nerve function?

B

The gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is called the ________ ________, and is made of the ______ bodies of the neurons.

Cerebral cortex; cell

What are the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex?

1) F--
2) P--
3) T--
4)O--

1) Frontal
2) Parietal
3) Temporal
4) Occipital

The tunnel through the midbrain called the ________ __________ connets the third to the fourth ventricle.

Cerebral aquaduct

The coverings of the brain and spinal cord are called the __________.

Meninges

What are the three layers of the meninges from outermost to innermost?

1) D-- M--
2) A-- S--
3) P-- M--

1) Dura Mater
2) Arachnoid Space
3) Pia Mater

CSF is stored in the _______ of the brain and found in the __________ space around the spinal cord.

Ventricles; Subarachnoid

CSF acts as a ______ absorber and provides __________.

Shock; nutrients

There are _____ cranial nerves and _______ pair of spinal nerves.

12; 31

Vision = __________ CN

Optic

Hearing = ___________ CN

Vestibulocochlear

Taste = ________ and __________ CN

Facial and glossopharyngeal

Smell = ___________ CN

Olfactory

Equilibrium = ____________ CN

Vestibulocochlear

Secretion of saliva = __________ and ___________ CN

Facial and glossopharyngeal

What are the two divisions of the ANS?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Which ANS division dominates in ER situations?

Sympathetic

What are the 5 special senses?

1) T--
2) B--
3) S--
4) H--
5) S--

1) Taste
2) Balance
3) Sight
4) Hearing
5) Smell

Which part of the eye contains the receptors for the sense of vision?

Retina

The receptors for hearing and equilibrium are located in the ________ ________.

Inner ear

Bacterial growth on the front of the eyeball is inhibited by __________ (enzyme).

Lysozyme

The shape of the lens of the eye is changed by the ________ ________.

Ciliary body

the receptors that detect movement of the body are located in the _____________ ___________.

Semicircular canals

Visual receptors that detect color are __________.

Cones

Keeping dust off the front of the eyeball is a function of the _______, ________, and _______.

Tears, eyelids, and eyelashes

What are the 3 layers of the eye, from outer to inner?

1) S--
2) C--
3) R--

1) Sclera
2) Choroid
3) Retina

__________ humor is found in the anterior cavity of the eye.

Aqueous

________ humor is found in the posterior cavity of the eye.

Vitreous

An infection which spreads from the throat through the eustachian tube affects the ________ ear.

Middle

The __________ nerve tires quickly and becomes insensitive after detecting the same odor for a period of time.

Olfactory

When an image is focused in front of the retina, this is called ________.

Myopia

The outermost part of the ear which functions to gather sound waves and direct them inward is called the ______.

Pinna

The secretion produced by the glands in the ear canal is called ___________.

Cerumen

__________ is opaqueness of the lens of the eye, causing cloudy vision.

Cataracts

A type of deafness that is a result of any condition which blocks sound from the inner ear is __________ deafness.

Conduction

What is the condition that is a result of abnormally high intraocular pressure caused by excess fluid in the eye?

Glaucoma

What are the major organs of the urinary system?

1) K--
2) B--
3) B-- V--
4) U--
5) U--

1) Kidneys
2) Bladder
3) Blood Vessels
4) Ureters
5) Urethra

the kidneys from urine from blood plasma and excrete ____________ waste, such as urea.

Nitrogenous

The kidneys regulate the pH of the blood by excreting or conserving ions such as ________ and ___________.

Sodium; potassium

The kidneys are located on either side of the ______ column in the upper abdominal cavity, _______ the peritoneum.

Spinal; behind

Surrounding the kidney is ______ tissue that acts as a cushion.

Adipose

The _______ is the fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the adipose tissue and helps hold the kidneys in place.

Capsule

The functional units of the kidneys are ______.

Nephrons

Each nephron consists of the ___________ and the ___________'s ___________.

Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

Blood enters the glomerulus from an __________ arteriole and leaves the glomerulus by way of an ___________ arteriole.

afferent; efferent

the fluid that enters the Bowman's capsule from the glomerulus is called ________ filtrate.

Renal

The blood vessels that surround all the parts of a renal tubule are called the ________________ capillaries, and carry blood that has come from an __________ arteriole.

Peritubular; efferent

The renal artery is a branch of the ______ (artery).

Aorta

The renal vein takes blood to the ____________.

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC)

In glomerular filtration, blood pressure forces plasma, dissolved substances, and small proteins out of the _____________ and into the ________'s __________.

Glomerulus; Bowman's capsule

The components of blood that remain in the blood of the peritubular capillaries are ______, ______, and ________ because they are too _____ to be forced out of the glomerulus.

RBC's, WBC's, and proteins; large

If blood flow through the kidneys decreases, the GFR will _________.

decrease

If the blood flow through the kidneys increases, the GFR will ___________.

Increase

How much of the renal filtrate is reabsorbed back into the blood? (percentage)

99%

If the blood glucose level is normal, ______ of the glucose present in the filtrate will be reabsorbed.

All

the kidneys secrete the enzyme renin when the blood pressure ____________.

Decreases

The kidneys secrete the hormone _______________ when the body is in a state of hypoxia, which means there is a lack of ________ in the tissue.

Erythropoietin; oxygen

Erythropoietin stimultes bone ________ to increase the rate of production of __________'s to increase the oxygen-carrying capactiy of the blood.

Marrow; RBC's

The two ureters are located ________ the peritoneum of the dorsal abdominal cavity. Each extends from the _______ of a kidney to the ____________ side of the bladder.

Behind; hilum; posterior

____________ of the ureter propels urine to the bladder.

Peristalsis

The urinary bladder is located behind the _____ bones. In men, the bladder is superior to the ________ gland. In women, the bladder is inferior to the _______.

Pubic; prostate; uterus

The functions of the urinary bladder are to serve as a ______ for accumulating urine and contract to ________ urine.

Reservoir; eliminate

When the bladder is empty, the mucosa has folds called __________.

Rugae

The urethra carries urine from the ___________ to the __________.

Bladder; outside

In women, the urethra is __________ to the vagina.

Anterior

In men, the urethra extends through the ________ gland and the ________ carries ______ as well as urine.

Prostate; penis; sperm

The normal range of urinary output in 24 hours is ________-______ mL.

1000-1500 mL

Urine is usually ______ (clear or cloudy)

Clear

Urine with a specified gravity of 1.023 is more _____________ (dilute, concentrated) than urine with a specific gravity of 1.015

Concentrated

The average pH of urine is ____, but a pH range of _____ to ______ is considered normal.

6; 4.8-8.0

Ranal calculi is also known as ________.

Stones

Urea is a nitrogenous waste that comes from the metabolism of ________.

Protein

The secretions of endocrine glands are called ________, which enter capillaries and circulate in the ________.

Hormones; blood

The organ on which the above secretions exert their specific effects are calls its _______ organ.

Target

Hormones are classified in two major groups based on their chemical structure. These groups are _______ and _______.

Steroids and proteins

The pituitary gland is enclosed and protected by the ______ bone.

Sphenoid

The pineal and pituitary gland are in the __________ *cavity*

Cranial

The thyroid gland is on the anterior side of the trachea, just below the ___________.

Larynx

The parathyroids are located on the posterior sides of the lobes of the __________.

Thyroid

The pancreas is located in the upper abdominal cavity between the _____ and the ________

Liver and spleen

The adrenal glands are located on top of the _______.

Kidneys

the ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity on either side of the ______.

Uterus

The testes are located outside the abdominal cavity in the __________.

Scrotum

The two parts of the pituitary gland are the __________ and the __________.

Anterior and Posterior

The posterior pituitary gland stores two hormones, that are actually produced by the _____________.

Hypothalamus

The function of ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) is to _________ reabsorption of ___ by the kidneys.

Increase; water

The target organs for oxytocin are the ________ and ________.

Uterus; breasts

Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete _____________ and ____________.

Calcitonin and thyroxine

FSH stimulates the development of the ________ in the ovarian follicles and increases the secretion of the hormone ________ by the follicle cells.

Ovum (Ova, egg); estrogen

Both FSH and LH have their effects on the ovaries or testes and may therefore be called ____________ hormones.

Gonadotropin

The mineral necessary for the manufacture of T3 is ___________.

Iodine

Cacitonin decreases the reabsorption of ________ from bones.

Calcium

Parathormone is secreted by the ______________ and increases the reabsorption of __________ from bones to the blood.

Parathyroid; calcium

___________ causes the liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production.

Glucagon

Insulin enables other body cells to take in _____ from the blood to use for energy production.

Glucose

The two parts of the adrenal gland are the _______ and __________.

Medulla and cortex

The adrenal _____ secretes a group of hormones called mineralocorticoids, of which _________ is the most important for regulating fluid.

Cortex; aldosterone

The hormones of the adrenal medulla are __________ and ____________.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Epinephrine ________ heart rate, and ______ the metabolic rate of the intestine.

Increase; decrease

Estrogen promotes maturation of the _____ in an ovarian follicle.

Ovum (ova, egg)

___________ promotes the development of the male secondary sex characteristics, which include the broadening of shoulders, narrow ______, maturation of __________, deeper voice, pubic and axillary hair.

Testosterone; hips; sperm

Meiosis is the cell division process that produces gametes, which are _______ and __________.

Sperm and egg

When meiosis takes places in the ovaries, the process is called ___________.

Oogenesis

When meiosis takes place in the testes, the process is called ______.

Spermatogenesis

The ovaries produce an egg every ___ days.

28

The testes are suspended outside the abdominal cavity within the ________.

Scrotum

Which hormone is responsible for the production of sperm and secondary sex characteristics?

Testosterone

Each sex cell contains ____ chromosomes.

23

The epididymis is a coiled tube on the _____ side of the testis.

Posterior

The vas deferens carry sperm from the ________ to the ________ duct

epididymis; ejaculatory

The ejaculatory duct receives sperm from the ____ _______ and the secretion of the seminal vesicles empties into the __________.

Vas deferens; urethra

The secretions of the seminal vesicles has an _______ pH to enhance sperm motility and contains _______ to nourish the sperm.

Alkaline; fructose

Sperm is produced in the ______________ tubules.

Seminiferous

the prostate gland surrounds the ________ just below the ___________.

Urethra; urinary bladder

The bulbourethral glands are also called the ________ glands.

Cowper's

the average pH of sperm is ______.

7.5

A __________ _________ is a surgical procedure performed on a female as the most effective form of birth control, in which her fallopian tubes are cut and tied.

Tubal ligation

A __________ is a surgical procedure performed on a male as the most effective form of birth control, in which his vas deferens would be severed.

Vasectomy

the hormone LH causes the ruptured follicle to become the __________ __________, which then begins to secrete the hormone _______ as well as estrogen.

Corpus luteus; progesterone

The fallopian tubes are also called the ______ tubes

Uterine

The body above the uterus is called the _______, and under is _________.

Fundus; Cervix

The smooth muscle layer of the uterus is called the __________.

Myometrium

The lining of the uterus is called the __________.

Endometrium

Which layer is shed during menstruation?

Endometrium

Which hormone stimulates contraction of the myometrium during labor?

Oxytocin

the hormone responsible for the *release* of milk from the mammary glands is ________ from the __________ gland

Oxytocin; (posterior) pituitary

The mentrual cycle requires hormones from the ________ pituitary and ovaries and involves changes in the ______ and the ovary.

Anterior; uterus

What are the 3 phases of the mentrual cycle?

1) M--
2) P--
3) S--

1) Menstrual
2) Proliferative
3) Secretory

If the ovum is not fertilized, a decrease in the hormone __________ causes the loss of the functional layer of the endometrium, and the cycle begins again with the _______ phase.

Progesterone; menstrual

______ is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes

Salpingitis

Painful or difficult menstruation is called ________.

Dysmenorrhea

The beginning of menstruation is the term ________.

Menarche

the vagina is lined with ______ membrane.

Mucous

Females reach puberty between the ages of ____-____.

10-14

The ovaries are connected to the uterus by ______.

Ligaments

Order of food through alimentary canal

Mouth


Esophagus


Stomach


Small intestine


Duodenum


Jejunum


Ileum


Large intestine


Cecum


Ascending colon


Transverse colon


Descending colon


Sigmoid colon


Rectum


Anus