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81 Cards in this Set

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1. A ____________ is the smallest unit of an organism capable of performing all of
the basic functions of life.
a. molecule
b. cell
c. organ
d. organism

b. cell
2. Anatomy or physiology?
- study of the physical and chemical processes underlying the functions and
activities of life
a. anatomy
b. physiology
b. physiology
3. Anatomy or physiology?
-study of the structure and organization of the various parts of the body
a. anatomy
b. physiology
a. anatomy
4. Which of the following would pertain more to the study of physiology than to the
study of anatomy?
a. identifying the location of a specific muscle
b. identifying the types of tissue present in the stomach wall
c. describing the process by which nerve impulses activate muscle contraction
d. observing the arrangement of cells in the adrenal gland
c. describing the process by which nerve impulses activate muscle contraction
5. Which of the following would pertain more to the study of anatomy than to the
study of physiology?
a. identifying the types of tissue present in the walls of the intestinal tract
b. identifying the factors that affect blood pressure
c. explaining the action of a hormone
d. describing the process of complex carbohydrate digestion
a. identifying the types of tissue present in the walls of the intestinal tract
6. The study of tissues is called _________.
a. cytology
b. anatomy
c. histology
d. physiology
c. histology
7. Which of the following lists is in the order of increasing levels of complexity?
a. organelles - tissues - cells - organ systems - organs
b. cells - macromolecules - tissues - body - organs
c. organelles - cells - tissues - organs - organ systems
d. tissues - cells - organs - organelles - organ systems
c. organelles - cells - tissues - organs - organ systems
8. In maintaining homeostasis, the body ____________________________.
a. periodically monitors parameters that define the internal environment
b. maintains a static (unchanging) internal environment
c. maintains a relatively constant internal environment compatible with life
d. seeks the lowest possible energy usage
c. maintains a relatively constant internal environment compatible with life
9. A stimulus produces a depolarization of the membrane potential in a nerve axon.
If the initial stimulus is large enough (i.e. above a certain threshold value), the
depolarization will cause the opening of sodium ion channels. This in turn
produces an even larger depolarization, opening even more sodium ion channels.
The cycle continues until a nerve impulse is generated. This is an example of
_____________.
a. homeostasis
b. negative feedback
c. positive feedback
d. none of the above
c. positive feedback
10. The following terms are related to negative-feedback:
1. control center
2. effector
3. receptor
4. response
5. stimulus
Arrange them in the correct order as they operate to maintain homeostasis.
a. 1,2,3,4,5
b. 2,3,5,1,4
c. 3,2,1,5,4
d. 4,5,3,2,1
e. 5,3,1,2,4
e. 5,3,1,2,4
11. The following events are part of a negative-feedback mechanism.
1. Blood pressure increases.
2. Control center compares actual blood pressure to the blood pressure set
point.
3. The heart beats faster.
4. Receptors detect a decrease in blood pressure.
Choose the arrangement that lists the events in the order they occur.
a. 1,2,3,4
b. 1,3,2,4
c. 3,1,4,2
d. 4,2,3,1
e. 4,3,2,1
d. 4,2,3,1
12. A person laying on their back and looking at the ceiling is in the ________
position.
a. anatomical
b. supine
c. prone
d. dorsal
b. supine
15. The mediastinum
a. contains the pleural cavities.
b. separates the pleural cavities.
c. contains the pericardial cavity.
d. Both b and c are correct.

d. Both b and c are correct.

16. The serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is the:
a. pleura
b. peritoneum
c. pericardium
d. mesentery

b. peritoneum
17. The serous membrane enclosing each lung:
a. pleura
b. peritoneum
c. pericardium
d. mesentery
a. pleura
18. If a surgeon makes an incision just inferior to the diaphragm, which body cavity
will be opened?
a. the abdominal cavity
b. the pleural cavity
c. the dorsal cavity
d. the thoracic cavity
a. the abdominal cavity
21. The symbol H+ stands for
a. hydrogen anion
b. hydrogen cation
c. proton
d. Both b and c are correct.
d. Both b and c are correct.
22. Unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms produces a(n)
a. nonpolar covalent bond
b. polar covalent bond
c. ionic bond
d. hydrogen bond
b. polar covalent bond
25. Hydrophilic molecules:
a. readily dissolve in water because they contain nonpolar covalent bonds.
b. readily dissolve in water because they contain charged groups and/or polar
covalent bonds.
c. do not readily dissolve in water because they contain polar covalent bonds.
d. readily dissolve in lipids because they contain nonpolar covalent bonds.
b. readily dissolve in water because they contain charged groups and/or polar
covalent bonds.
26. In the study of physiology, the decomposition of macromolecules to simpler
compounds is termed:
a. anabolism
b. catabolism
c. metabolism
d. homeostasis
b. catabolism
28. In the study of physiology, the synthesis of macromolecules from simpler
compounds is termed:
a. anabolism
b. catabolism
c. metabolism
d. hydrolysis
a. anabolism
29. The continuous breakdown and replacement of cellular macromolecules is
termed:
a. anabolic turnover
b. catabolic turnover
c. metabolic turnover
d. metabolism
c. metabolic turnover
30. In cells, glucose, a six-carbon molecule, is converted into two three-carbon
molecules by a reaction that releases energy. How would you classify this
reaction?
a. both anabolic and endergonic
b. both anabolic and exergonic
c. both catabolic and endergonic
d. both catabolic and exergonic
d. both catabolic and exergonic
31. Limited supplies of glucose are stored as a polysaccharide in:
a. adipose tissue
b. the liver
c. muscle
d. Both b and c are correct.
d. Both b and c are correct.
32. The storage form of glucose in humans is ___________.
a. triglyceride
b. starch
c. sucrose
d. glycogen
d. glycogen
33. Which of the following statements concerning lipids is FALSE?
a. include triglycerides, the primary storage form for energy in the body
b. include the phospholipids that make up lipid membranes
c. include cholesterol
d. readily dissolve in water
d. readily dissolve in water
34. A chain of 5 amino acids would be called a ___________.
a. protein
b. polypeptide
c. peptide
d. monomer
c. peptide
35 The basic units or building blocks of triglycerides are
a. simple sugars
b. amino acids
c. glycerol and fatty acids
d. nucleotides
c. glycerol and fatty acids
36. ATP
a. is formed by the addition of a phosphate group to ADP.
b. is formed with energy released during catabolic reactions.
c. provides the energy for most anabolic reactions.
d. contains three phosphate groups.
e. All of the above.
e. All of the above.
37. Which of these statements concerning enzymes is correct?
a. Enzymes increase the rate of reactions but are permanently changed as a
result.
b. Enzymes are proteins that function as catalysts.
c. Enzymes increase the activation energy requirement for a reaction to occur.
d. Enzymes increase the kinetic energy of the reactants.
b. Enzymes are proteins that function as catalysts.
38. Which of these is an example of a carbohydrate?
a. glycogen
b. triglyceride
c. cholesterol
d. DNA
a. glycogen
39. Activation energy
a. is only required for anabolic reactions.
b. is only required when body temperatures drop below normal.
c. is the amount of energy required to make a reaction proceed.
d. All of the above are true statements.
c. is the amount of energy required to make a reaction proceed.
40. Enzymes are able to catalyze reactions because they
a. increase the activation energy.
b. lower the activation energy.
c. make reactions go slower.
d. are consumed during the reaction.
b. lower activation energy
41. A kinase is an enzyme that
a. catalyzes the polymerization of DNA molecules.
b. breaks down lipids.
c. breaks down nucleic acids.
d. catalyzes the addition of phosphate groups to molecules.
d. catalyzes the addition of phosphate groups to molecules.
42. Somatic cells
a. include sperm.
b. include ova.
c. include hepatocytes.
d. All of the above.
c. include hepatocytes.
43. Which of the following is in the correct order?
a. RNA -> transcription -> DNA -> translation -> protein
b. DNA-> translation -> RNA -> transcription -> protein
c. DNA -> transcription -> RNA -> translation -> protein
d. DNA -> RNA -> transcription -> translation -> protein
c. DNA -> transcription -> RNA -> translation -> protein
44. The ________________ is the barrier between a cell and its environment.
a. cytosol
b. cytoplasm
c. plasma membrane
d. plasma
c. plasma membrane
45. The cell substance filling the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus is
the ________________.
a. plasma
b. cytoplasm
c. endosome
d. glycocalyx
b. cytoplasm
46. Which of the following is true of cell nuclei?
a. The DNA within the nucleus is packaged with proteins, forming a structure
referred to as chromatin.
b. The nuclear membrane is continuous with the plasma membrane.
c. Nuclei contain spherical organelles called nucleoli, which synthesize proteins.
d. The nucleus contains all of the cell’s DNA.
a. The DNA within the nucleus is packaged with proteins, forming a structure
47. The process of transcription involves production of:
a. an amino acid chain from an mRNA template
b. an amino acid chain from a DNA template
c. DNA from an RNA template
d. RNA from a DNA template
d. RNA from a DNA template
48. The process of translation involves production of:
a. an amino acid chain from an mRNA template
b. an amino acid chain from a DNA template
c. DNA from an RNA template
d. RNA from a DNA template
a. an amino acid chain from an mRNA template
49. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. A gene is a sequence of nucleotides within a segment of DNA that provides the
coded instructions for making a specific protein.
b. All genes have a promoter region where transcription factors bind to recruit
RNA polymerase to the gene.
c. When transcription from a gene is activated, we say that the gene is being
expressed.
d. Gene expression can be turned on and turned off but the level of expression
cannot otherwise be modulated.
d. Gene expression can be turned on and turned off but the level of expression
cannot otherwise be modulated.
50. Translation is
a. the process by which information encoded in a molecule of mRNA is translated
to an amino acid chain.
b. the process by which information encoded in DNA is copied as a molecule of
mRNA.
c. the production of ATP.
d. the production of new plasma membrane.
a. the process by which information encoded in a molecule of mRNA is translated
to an amino acid chain.
51. Which of the following statements about ATP is (are) true?
a. ATP is used for long-term storage of energy.
b. ATP is a short-term carrier of energy within the cell.
c. Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP.
d. All of the above are correct.
e. B and C only are correct.
e. B and C only are correct.
52. An ionic bond involves _____.
a. the sharing of a single pair of electrons
b. an attraction between ions of opposite charge
c. the unequal sharing of an electron pair
b. an attraction between ions of opposite charge
53. All of the following are polymers EXCEPT
a. proteins
b. lipids
c. carbohydrates
d. nucleic acids
b. lipids
54. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. Forming new bonds releases energy.
b. Endergonic reactions release energy.
c. In an exergonic reaction the energy in the reactants is less than the energy
in the products.
d. Exergonic reactions release energy.
d. Exergonic reactions release energy.
55. Which of the following is NOT correctly paired?
a. amino acids/proteins
b. steroids/lipids
c. monosacchrides/ complex carbohydrates
d. nucleotides/nucleic acids
b. sterooids/lipids
56. In a hydrolysis reaction, _____, and in this process water is _____.
a. a polymer is broken up into its constituent monomers ... consumed
b. a monomer is broken up into its constituent polymers ... produced
c. monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... consumed
d. a polymer is broken up into its constituent monomers ... produced
a. a polymer is broken up into its constituent monomers ... consumed
59. A person in the anatomical position will exhibit each of the following EXCEPT:
a. standing erect
b. arms to the side
c. palms facing anteriorly
d. palms facing posteriorly
d. palms facing posteriorly
60. The scapula (shoulder blade) is __________ to the lung.
a. dorsal
b. posterior
c. superficial
d. All of the above.
d. All of the above
61. The nose is __________ and __________ to the ears.
a. anterior, proximal
b. superior, lateral
c. inferior, posterior
d. anterior, medial
e. superficial, medial
d. anterior, medial
62. Which of these structures is NOT found in the mediastinum?
a. diaphragm
b. esophagus
c. heart
d. thymus gland
e. trachea
a. diaphragm
63. The cavity surrounded by the rib cage and bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm
is the ______________.
a. mediastinum
b. pericardial cavity
c. thoracic cavity
d. abdomen
e. pelvic cavity
c. thoracic cavity
64. The clavicle (collarbone) is _____________ to the nipple of the breast.
a. anterior
b. distal
c. superficial
d. superior
e. ventral
d. superior
65. Which of the following organs is NOT retroperitoneal?
a. adrenal glands
b. kidneys
c. pancreas
d. stomach
d. stomach
66. Which of the following is most inferior in location?
a. pelvic cavity
b. mediastinum
c. diaphragm
d. pleural cavity
a. pelvic cavity
67. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the
a. sternum
b. diaphragm
c. mediastinum
d. mesentery
b. diaphragm
68. The cavity of the body immediately inferior to the diaphragm is the ______
cavity.
a. pleural
b. thoracic
c. pelvic
d. abdominal
d. abdominal
69. The shoulder is ________ to the elbow.
a. proximal
b. dorsal
c. distal
d. ventral
a. proximal
70. The cranial cavity is _______ to the thoracic cavity.
a. inferior
b. anterior
c. peripheral
d. superior
d. superior
71. A parietal membrane _______, whereas a visceral membrane _______.
a. covers organs; lines cavities
b. lines cavities; covers organs
c. is thick; is thin
d. secretes mucus; secretes a serous fluid
b. lines cavities; covers organs
72. The thoracic cavity lies where in relationship to the abdominopelvic cavity?
a. dorsal
b. ventral
c. superior
d. inferior
c. superior
73. The ankle is _______ to the knee.
a. deep
b. medial
c. superior
d. distal
d. distal
74. A midsagittal plane divides the body into ________________.
a. left and right halves
b. anterior and posterior halves
c. ventral and dorsal halves
d. superior and inferior halves
a. left and right halves
75. A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions is
called a ___________.
a. sagittal plane
b. frontal plane
c. coronal plane
d. transverse plane
d. transverse
76. A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is
called a(n) _____________.
a. frontal plane
b. sagittal plane
c. transverse plane
d. oblique plane
a. frontal plane
77. Which of the paired terms below are opposites?
a. anterior and cephalic
b. posterior and cephalic
c. posterior and caudal
d. superior and cephalic
e. anterior and dorsal
e. anterior and dorsal
78. Which of the following most correctly describes the relationship between the
heart and the urinary bladder?
a. The urinary bladder is superior to the heart.
b. The urinary bladder is inferior to the heart.
c. The urinary bladder is anterior to the heart.
d. The urinary bladder is proximal to the heart.
b. The urinary bladder is inferior to the heart.
79. Which of the following most correctly describes the relationship between the
spine and the lungs?
a. The spine is medial and posterior to the lungs.
b. The spine is medial and anterior to the lungs.
c. The spine is lateral and posterior to the lungs.
d. The spine is lateral and anterior to the lungs.
a. The spine is medial and posterior to the lungs.
80. In figure #1, the crural region is marked:
a. M
b. N
c. O
d. P
d. P
81. In figure #1, the femoral region is marked:
a. M
b. N
c. O
d. P
c. O
82. In figure #1, what an anatomist would call the leg is marked:
a. M
b. N
c. O
d. P
d. P
83. In figure #1, the brachial region is marked:
a. M
b. N
c. O
d. P
a. M
84. In figure #1, the antebrachial region is marked:
a. M
b. N
c. O
d. P
b. N
85. In figure #1, what an anatomist would call the arm is marked:
a. M
b. N
c. O
d. P
a. M
86. In figure #2, the pelvic cavity is marked:
a. R
b. T
c. V
d. W
d. W
87. In figure #2, the thoracic cavity is marked:
a. R
b. T
c. V
d. W
b. T
88. In figure #2, the abdominopelvic cavity is marked:
a. T
b. U
c. V
d. W
b. U
89. In figure #2, the cranial cavity is marked:
a. R
b. S
c. T
d. U
a. R
90. The anatomical term that refers to the head:
a. sacral
b. mental
c. cephalic
d. coxal
c. cephalic