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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define: acculturation
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct
Define: core values
key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it from others
Define: cultural relativism
The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members' beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action.
Define: cultural rights
Doctrine that certain rights are vested not in individuals but in identifiable groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies.
Define: diffusion
Borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries.
Define: enculturation
The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations.
Define: ethnocentrism
The tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards.
Define: generality
Culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies
Define: globalization
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
Define: hominid
A member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors.
Define: hominins
A member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; used to describe all the human species that ever have existed, including the extinct ones, but excluding chimps and gorillas.
Define: human rights
Doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions. Human rights, usually seen as vested in individuals, would include the right to speak freely, to hold religious beliefs without persecution, and not to be enslaved.
Define: independent invention
Development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances.
Define: intellectual property rights (IPR)
Each society's cultural base—its core beliefs and principles. IPR is claimed as a group right—a cultural right, allowing indigenous groups to control who may know and use their collective knowledge and its applications.
Define: international culture
Cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries.
Define: national culture
Cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation.
Define: particularity
Distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration.
Define: subcultures
Different cultural symbol-based traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society.
Define: symbol
Something, verbal or non-verbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection.
Define: universal
Something that exists in every culture.