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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of structure by dissection is?
anatomy
The study of objects without a microscope.
gross anatomy
Who is considered to be the "Father of Anatomy."
Andreas Vesalius
Who was regarded as the authority in anatomy?
Galen
What was the name of Vesalius' book?
"On the Structure of Anatomy"
What is the study of cells?
cytology
What is the study of tissues?
histology
What is the study of embryology?
developmental anatomy
What is the comparing of two different anatomies?
comparative anatomy
What is the study of biological function?
physiology
Physio is greek for what?
nature
Who is regarded as 'the father of physiology"?
William Harvey
How many lecture exams will be used this semester to calculate your grade?
4
Who are you supposed to call if you want to be in the lab during the night when it is usually locked?
Campus Security
What organization sent Vesalius to Jerusalim?
Catholic Church
What experiment did William Harvey do?
Showed that blood flows through vessels
Is the study of blood flow through the heart an example of anatomy or is it an example of physiology?
physiology
Will the same textbook for this course also be used during spring semester?
yes
Are you allowed to drop one of the lab exams this semester?
no
How many points will the final exam be worth this semester?
100
What does anatomy consist of ?
muscle tissue, chambers, valves, vessels, conductive tracts and epithelium
What is the full definition of physiology?
study of blood flow patterns, how muscle tissues contract, how impulses pass through the heart to produce a coordinated contraction
How are humans classified?
human classification
What is a system developed by biologists to name and show relationships between living organisms?
taxonomic scheme
All living organisms are listed in one of three what?
Domains
What domain includes "ancient bacteria"?
Archaea
What domain included "other bacteria"?
Eubacteria
What domain includes everything like humans?
Eukarya
What does karya mean?
nucleus
What kingdom do humans belong to?
animalia
What are the four kingdoms?
animals, plants, protista, and fungi
What is the taxonomic order?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What phylum do mammals belong to?
chordata
What do chordates have that separate them from others?
backbones
All chordates have what three structrues during their lifetime?
Notochord, Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord, Pharyngeal pouches
A notochord only exists when?
During embyonic development
What creature has a notochord as an adult?
Amphioxus
What does the first pharyngeal pouch become in humans?
Middle ear cavity and eustachian tube
What class do mammals belong to?
mammalia
Only mammals contain have what characteristics? (12)
mammary glands, hair, facial muscles, heterodont teeth, diphodontia, diaphragm, external ears, three ear ossicles, four chambered hearts with a left aortic arch, single lower jaw bone articulating with the skull, 7 cervical vertebrae, non-nucleated red blood cells
What order to humans belong to?
primate
What characteristics do primates have?
Opposable thumbs and large brains
What family do mammals belong to?
Hominidae
What does homo mean?
same or man
What characteristics cause humans to be successful animals?
large brain for body size, bipedal, opposable thumbs (manual dexterity), vocal structure, communicative, stereoscopic vision (both eyes are on the sam plane)
What means different types of teeth?
heterodontia
Humans have what kind of teeth that allow them to eat virtually everything?
bunodont teeth
What is the study of cells?
cytology
What is the basic unit of life?
cells
What 6 things do organisms do?
metabolize, grow, reproduce, respond to stimuli, move, and controlled by DNA
What must happen in order for cells to live?
conditions must be kept constant
What means "same standing"?
homeostasis
How much of the body is composed of water?
2/3
Where is about 2/3 of the water in our bodies located?
in our cells
Where is about 1/3 of the water in our bodies located?
outside cells
What order to humans belong to?
primate
What characteristics do primates have?
Opposable thumbs and large brains
What family do mammals belong to?
Hominidae
What does homo mean?
same or man
What characteristics cause humans to be successful animals?
large brain for body size, bipedal, opposable thumbs (manual dexterity), vocal structure, communicative, stereoscopic vision (both eyes are on the sam plane)
The extracellular fluid is either what two things?
Blood or Interstitial fluid
Blood is located within how much of most cells?
50 micrometers
What is the smallest blood vessel?
Capillary
What is an organized group of similar cells that perform a similar function?
Tissues
How many major types of tissue are there?
four
What are the four types of tissues?
Epithelial, Muscle, Nerve, and Connective
What tissue lines vessels, lymph veins, body cavities, etc.?
Epithelial
What two things do epithelial tissues have?
Free surface and basement membrane
What are the different kinds of muscle tissues?
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
What two muscle tissues are invlountary?
Cardiac and smooth
What muscle tissue is voluntary?
skeletal
What does the cardiac muscle do?
contract and expand the heart
What does the smooth muscle able to do?
erect erector pili, move food through intestines
What does skeletal muscle do?
moves bones
What tissue is able to conduct an impulse?
Nerve
What tissue hold things together?
connective tissue
What are some examples of connective tissues?
ligaments, tendons, bones, cartilage, fascia, blood
What is the non-living cellular stuff that connective tissue has?
matrix
What is the non-living part of blood?
plasma
What is a group of tissues and cells that perform a similar function?
organ
What is a group of organs that perform a given function?
system
What is created when all systems are together and working properly?
organism
What is the name for standing erect, heels togehter, and thumbs out?
Anatomical position
What is the term for face down or lying face down?
prone
What is the term for face up?
supine
What is the term for front and leading surface?
anterior
What is another term for anterior in humans?
ventral
What is the term for back and behind surface?
posterior
What is another term for posterior in humans?
dorsal
What is the term for toward the head?
superior
What is another term for superior in humans?
cranial
What is the term for towards the feet?
inferior
What is another term for inferior in humans?
caudal
What is the term for toward the midline?
medial
What is the term for away from the midline?
lateral
What is the term for closer to the surface?
superficial
What is the term for further away from the surface?
deep
What is the term for closer to the point of reference?
proximal
What is the term for distant from a point of reference?
distal
What is the plane that divides the body into right and left parts?
sagittal
What is the sagittal plane that passes through the center of the body with equal left and right halves on the side?
midsagittal
What is the sagittal plane that is to the side of midsagittal?
parasagittal
What is the plane that divides the body into front and back parts?
frontal
What is another name for frontal in humans?
coronal
What is the plane the divides the body into upper and lower parts?
transverse
What are planes that go through tissues, like muscle?
tissue sections
What is the plane through the narrowest part of a tissue or cell?
transverse
What is the plane through the longest part of a tissue or cell?
longitudinal
What is the cavity that passes along the dorsal surface of the body and contains the brain and spinal cord?
dorsal cavity
What cavity contains the brain?
cranial cavity
What cavity contains the spinal cord?
Spinal cavity
What cavity passes along the ventral surface of the body and contains visceral organs?
ventral cavities
What is the cavity that is superior to the diaphragm?
thoracic
What is the part of the thoracic cavity that contains lungs?
pleural cavity
What is the part of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart?
pericardial
What is the region between the lungs that contains the trachea, esophagus, major vessels, nerves, the thymus gland, pericardial cavity with the heart and fat?
mediastinum
What is the cavity between the diaphragm and the superior plane of the pelvis in the peritoneal cavity?
Abdominal cavity
What is the cavity that is inferior to the superior plane of the pelvis in the peritoneal cavity?
pelvic cavity
What are sheets of material that surround the internal parts of cells or cover cells as cell membranes, or connect body visceral organs to the dorsal body wall as mesentary?
membrane
What type of membranes line the walls of the body cavity?
parietal membranes
What membranes cover the surfaces of organs that are located inside the body?
visceral membranes
What membrane is around the heart?
pericardium
What is the inner lining of the pericardial sac that touches the heart?
perietal pericardium
What is the outer layer of the heart? The layer you touch when you hold the heart in your hand?
visceral pericardium
What is the sac that holds the heart?
pericardial sac
What is the cavity between the heart and sac?
pericardial sac
What is the layer of membrane on the ribs that touches the lungs?
parietal pleura
What is the outer layer of the lungs?
visceral pleura
What is the membrane the lines the body cavity of the peritoneum?
parietal peritoneum
What is the membrane that covers the organs of the peritoneum?
visceral peritoneum
What are the membranes that support organs in ventral body cavities?
mesentaries
What connect the organ to the dorsal side of the body cavity?
mesentaries
What pass through mesentaries to get to and from organs?
blood vessels and nerves
What has a maximum magnification of 1,000x?
light microscope
What are the two different types of electron microscopes?
scanning and transmission
What slide preparation kills tissues and binds molecules together?
fixation
What slide preparation removes water from the cell and replaces it with an organic solvent like alcohol or acetone?
dehydration
What is an example of a common fixative?
formaldehyde
What is the process which places wax or epoxy into the tissue in the place water normally occupies?
infiltration
What is the process of cutting thin slices of tissue encased in wax and mounting them on glass slides?
sectioning
What is the process of using a special stain to show cellular organelles?
staining
What is the metric unit of length?
meter
What is the metric unit of weight?
gram
How many grams are in one pound?
454
How many pounds are in a kilograms?
about 2.2
What is the metric unit of volume?
liter
What is the metric unit of time?
seconds