Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/169

Click to flip

169 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the 6 Digestive organs (organs that make up the GI Tract)

▪️Oral cavity


▪️Pharynx


▪️Esophagus


▪️Stomach


▪️Small intestine


▪️Large intestine

What are the 6 Accessory digestive organs?

▪️teeth


▪️tongue


▪️salivary glands


▪️liver


▪️gallbladder


▪️pancreas

The digestive system can be categorized into which two divisions?

Digestive organs


Accessory organs

What are hr 6 Digestive System Functions?

1. Ingestion


2. Digestion


3. Propulsion


4. Secretion


5. Absorption


6. Elimination

What are the two components of digestion?

Mechanical


Chemical

What are the two components of propulsion?

Peristalsis


Segmentation

Describe propulsion

Wave like contraction of smooth muscle

Describe propulsion

Wave like contraction of smooth muscle

Describe segementation

Mixes more than moves things through the digestive tract. It also mechanically breaks stuff up.

What kinds of things are secretes in secretion?

Saliva


Digestive enzymes


Bile


Mucus

Describe absorption

The blood stream picks up most of the nutrients except for lipids that are picked up by the lymphatic system.

What is "fiber" made of?

Cellulose

The roof of the mouth is made up of the _____________&______________.

Hard pallet


Soft pallet

The floor of the oral cavity is made of...

Muscles like the myohyoid muscle covered with mucosa.

The lateral muscle of the oral cavity is made up of the...

Buccinator muscle

The muscle that makes up the lips is the...

Orbicularis oris

The alveolar processes concision the...

Roots of the teeth

The scientific name for gums is...

Gingivae

Your gingivae are attached to your lips by little folds of mucosa called...

Labial frenulum

Is the hard pallet anterior or posterior?

Anterior

The soft pallet is anterior and is made of...

Muscle and mucosa

The soft pallet is anterior and is made of...

Muscle and mucosa

When you swallow what happens to the soft pallet?

It elevates and tenses and keeps things from going from your oral cavity and oral pharynx up into your nasal pharynx and nasal cavity.

The uvula or "little grape" is part of your

Soft pallet

The hard and soft pallet prevent eating from getting in the way of ________________.

Breathing

What does the palate have to do with nursing?

Makes a seal

The hard palate is made up of which two bones?

Palletine and maxilla

The tongue helps with...

Manipulating food and speech

Your tongue is attached to the floor of your oral cavity by...

Lingual frenulum

What are the three salivary glands?

1. Parotid glands


2. Submandibular glands


3. Sublingual glands

What does saliva do?

▪️Moistens the mouth & food


▪️Contains salivary amylase that starts the digestion of starches


▪️fights bacteria in your mouth

What does saliva do?

▪️Moistens the mouth & food


▪️Contains salivary amylase that starts the digestion of starches


▪️fights bacteria in your mouth

The parotid duct emptied into the oral cavity opposite the ...

Second upper molar

The ducts for the Submandibular gland are on either side of the ______________ ________________

Lingual frenulum

The Sublingual glands are underneath the ___________ and are ___________.

Tongue


Small

"Baby" teeth are called

Deciduous teeth

Your complete set of teeth are called your...

Dentition

How many adult teeth do you have?

32

Your throat is your

Pharynx

There are three sets of skeletal muscles that form the walls of your Pharynx and allow you to swallow and they are called...

Superior


Middle


Inferior


Constrictors

Below your Pharynx is the...

Esophagus

In the abdominal cavity serous membrane is called...

Peritoneum

The layer of peritoneum that lines the body wall on the inside is...

Parietal peritoneum

The peritoneum that covers the organs themselves is...

Visceral peritoneum

The cavity between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum is called the

Peritoneal cavity

Organs that are completely covered by peritoneum are called...

Intraperitineal

Organs that are only partially covered by peritoneum are called...

Retroparitoneal


(Bladder and organs on your posterior abdominal wall)

The fold of peritoneum hanging off of the greater curvature of the stomach like a big fatty apron covering the intestines is called the...

Greater Omentum

The Lesser Omentum attaches to the...

Lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal duodenum and the liver

Most of the small intestines are...

Intraperitoneal

The folds of peritoneum that surround the small intestine are...

Mesentery

The Mesentary attaches the small intestine to the...

Posterior body wall

The Mesentery that is associated with the small intestine is called the...

Mesentery proper

The part of the large intestine covered in Mesentery is the...

Mesocolon

A fold of peritoneum that runs from the liver to the anterior body wall is the...

Falciform ligament

At the bottom of the Falciform ligament is the ____________ ligament. This ligament used robbery a structure of your umbilical cord.

Round

The three divisions of the GI tract are...

Foregut


Midgut


Hindgut

The foregut is made up of the...

Liver


Stomach


Part of the small intestine

The foregut is made up of the...

Liver


Stomach


Part of the small intestine

The midgut is made of...

Small and large intestine

The foregut is made up of the...

Liver


Stomach


Part of the small intestine

The midgut is made of...

Small and large intestine

What is the artery that supplies the foregut?

Celiac trunk

The foregut is made up of the...

Liver


Stomach


Part of the small intestine

The midgut is made of...

Small and large intestine

What is the artery that supplies the foregut?

Celiac trunk

What is the artery that supplies the midgut?

Superior Mesenteric

The foregut is made up of the...

Liver


Stomach


Part of the small intestine

The midgut is made of...

Small and large intestine

What is the artery that supplies the foregut?

Celiac trunk

What is the artery that supplies the midgut?

Superior Mesenteric

What is the artery that supplies the hindgut?

Inferior Mesenteric

The Venus blood coming from the digestive system eventually all drains into one large vein called the...

Hepatic portal vein

What are two functions of the liver?

Detox your blood


Store vitamins/nutrients

The celiac plexus innervates structure they receive their blood supply from the...

Celiac trunk (forgut)

The superior mesenteric Plexus innervates the same structures that receive their blood supply from the...

Superior mesenteric artery (midgut)

The superior mesenteric Plexus innervates the same structures that receive their blood supply from the...

Superior mesenteric artery (midgut)

The inferior mesenteric Plexus innervates the same structures that receive blood from the...

Inferior mesenteric artery (hindgut)

The Esophagus extends from the _____________ to the ___________.

Pharynx


Stomach

The job of the esophagus is to get food from the ______________ to the _____________. There is ______ absorption or digestion that happens in the Esophagus.

Pharynx


Stomach


No

Most of the esophagus is in the _____________ but there is a tiny amount in the ___________.

Thorax


Abdomen

The stomach continues _____________ and ____________ digestion.

Mechanical


Chemical

The mechanical portion is the _____________ of the stomach.

Churning

There are _______ layers of smooth muscle around your stomach that help with the churning of the food.

3

The main portion of the stomach is called the __________.

Body

The portion where the esophagus enters the stomach is called the...

Cardia

If you were to cut into the cardia the opening would be called the....

Cardiac orafice

The rounded portion of the stomach superior and lateral to the cardia is the...

Fundus

If you move distally through the stomach it narrows and the narrowed portion is called the...

Pylorus

The Pylorus attaches to the first part of the _____________.

Small intestine

The opening where the stomach empties into the small intestine is the...

Pyloric orifice

The circular muscle that surrounds hr Pyloric orifice is the...

Pyloric sphincter

The mucosal lining is the stomach is wrinkly (in a stomach that isn't full). These are called ___________ ___________. When the stomach is full they get stretched out to create more room.

Gastric folds

In the GI tract, after the stomach comes the ___________ _______________.

Small intestine

The small intestine has three segments:

Duodenum


Jejunum


Ileum

Chemical digestion completed here and the absorption of most nutrients occurs here:

Small intestine

Chemical digestion completed here and the absorption of most nutrients occurs here:

Small intestine

The small intestine extends from the ___________ of the stomach to the ____________ of the large intestine.

Pylorus


Cecum

The duodenum is snuggled up against the head of the _____________.

Pancreas

The place where the pancreas and the liver secretes into the Duodenum...

Major duadinal papilla

The sphincter between the large and small intestine is called...

Iliosecal valve

The large intestine is called he large intestine because the _____________ is larger even though it is shorter.

Diameter

The large intestine starts at the ______________ valve and ends at the ___________.

Iliosecal valve


Anus

__________ and ion reabsorption happens in the large intestine.

Water

The vermaform appendix hangs off the __________

Secum

The gallbladder stores __________ that's made by the __________.

Bile


Liver

The gallbladder secretes its bile into the

Duodenum

The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice into the...

Major duodenal papilla

There are two ducts coming out of the liver that carry bile they are called the...

Right and left hepatic ducts

The right and left hepatic duct join to form a...

Common hepatic duct

The cystic duct runs through the ___________ to help transport bile.

Gallbladder

The cystic duct combines with the common hepatic duct to form the...

Common bile duct

The _____________is the duct the enters the major duodenal papilla.

Common bile duct

List the structures in the Urinary Tract:

Ureters


Urinary bladder


Urethra

The Urinary System consists of the Urinary tract and the__________.

Kidneys

The Urinary Tract is primarily responsible for...

Transporting storing and getting rid of urine.

The ______________ goes from the bladder to the outside of the body.

Urethra

The ___________ run from hr kidneys down to the bladder.

Ureters

What to basic things do the kidneys do?

▪️Filter waste products from the blood stream


▪️Convert the filtrate into urine

The functional unit of the kidney is the ___________.

Nephron

Where everything is going in and out of the kidney is called the

Hilum

The Renal artery comes off of the...

Descending abdominal aorta

The Renal artery comes off of the...

Descending abdominal aorta

The renal vein comes off of the...

Inferior vena cava

The urinary bladder contains a layer of smooth muscle called _______________. This is the muscle that contracts to empty the bladder.

The detrusor muscle

There is a ligament that runs from the top of the bladder to the back side of the belly button called the...

Median umbilical ligament

Blood supply to the bladder is from the

Internal iliac artery

The bladder is drained by the

Internal iliac vein

What are the three names for the male urethra?

▪️Prostatic (runs through the prostate gland)


▪️Membranous (from the prostate to the urogenital diaphragm)


▪️Spongy (encased in the corpus spongiosum)

What is a homologue?

A structure that develops from the same embryological tissue and perform a similar function.

The testes are a homologue with the

Ovaries

The labia majora is a a homologue with the

Scrotum

The clitoris is a homologue with the

Penis

The vestibular glands is a homologue with the

Bulbourethral glands

Primary sex organs are called

Gonads

Gonads produce

Gametes


Sex hormones

Sex cells which unite to form a new individual are called

Gametes

When male and female gametes fuse this is called

Fertilization

Accessory sex organs are

Ducts and glands & the uterus

The area between the thighs is the

Perineum

The site of fertilization is with in the

Uterine/falopian tube

The barrier near the vaginal orifice is the

Hymen

The external genitalia in a female is called the

Vulva

The Dartose muscle is smooth muscle located in the

Scrotum

The Dartose muscle can move the testes __________ to the body if it is too cold or __________ from the body if it is too hot.

Closer


Away

Structures running to and from the testes are part of the

Spermatic chord

Part of the wall of the spermatic chord is made up of the _____________ muscle

Craymaster

The ___________ muscle and the ___________ muscle both move the testes in response to temperature.

Dartose


Craymaster

In the spermatic chord there are ...

▪️Testicular artery


▪️Penpinoform Plexus (the veins that take blood away from the testes)


▪️Vastephrens

In the spermatic chord there are ...

▪️Testicular artery


▪️Penpinoform Plexus (the veins that take blood away from the testes)


▪️Vastephrens

What do the vastephrens do?

Get the sperm to the urethra so it can leave the body.

_____________ are the male gonad.

Testes

What are the three ducts that get the sperm to the urethra in males?

Epididymis


Vas deferens


Ejaculatory duct

What are the three parts of the male urethra?

Prostatic urethra


Membranous urethra


Spongy urethra

What are the accessory glands in the male reproductive system that make seminal fluid?

Seminal vesicles


Prostate gland


Bulbourethral glands

What are the accessory glands in the male reproductive system that make seminal fluid?

Seminal vesicles


Prostate gland


Bulbourethral glands

Seminal fluid with sperm is ___________.

Semen

_______________ acts as a buffer against the vagina's acidity.

Seminal fluid

How is seminal fluid like a packed lunch for the sperm?

It nourishes them with nutrients that they need on their long journey.

The _____________ is where the sperm go to mature and become motile.

Epididymis

Trace the path of the sperm from the testes to the ducts then through the different parts of the urethra.

Epididymis


Ductus Deferens


Ejaculatory duct


Prostatic urethra


Membranous urethra


Spongy urethra

The penis has ________ erectile tissues.

3

The two paired erectile tissues that run on the dorsal surface of the penis are called...

Corpora cavernosa

The crus of the penis is where the

Corpora Cavernosa attach to the pubic bone.

The unpaired erectile tissue on the ventral side (in males) is called the...

Corpus spongiosum

Which erectile tissue does the urethra run through in males?

Corpus spongiosum

The bulb and the crus form the __________ of the penis.

Root

The bulb and the glans of the penis are made of which erectile tissue?

Corpus spongiosum

The crus of the penis is made of which erectile tissue?

Corpora cavernosa