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136 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 major connective tissues?


Connective tissue proper


Supporting connective tissue


Fluid connective tissue

What are characteristics of connective tissue that make them unique to the family of tissues?


1. Physical & metabolic support


2. Diversity of blood, fat, bone & cartilage but they all are derived from the same embryonic tissue, mesenchyme and they are vascular with the exception of cartilage which is avascular

All connective tissues are derived from the sam embryonic tissue called?

Mesenchyme
What are 3 basic elements of connective tissue?

Cells, protein fibers and ground substance
What are the common cells of connective tissue?

Fibroblast, mast, plasma, macrophages (free & fixed) and adipocyte
What are the functions of connective tissue's cells
Produce the ground substance
What are the structural proteins of connective tissue?
Collagen, elastic fibers, reticular fibers
What are the functions of connective tissue protein fibers?
strengthen & support connective tissue
What are the common structures in ground substance?
non-living material produced by fibroblast; protein, carbohydrate, & water molecules
Extracellular Matrix (made up of)
protein fibers & ground substance
Diversity of ground substance varying according to proportions of ____ & ______.

protein fibers, ground substance
What 3 defense cells assist with the immune response to repair tissue?
Plasma cells, Mast cells, & macrophages (fixed & free)
What is the fundamental connective tissue proper cell type?

fibroblasts
What type of cell?
What type of cell?
fibroblast

fibroblasts (function)

secrete fibers & matrix
Macrophages (function)
develop from monocytes & are phagocytic
What is the process called to when living cell ingest or engulf other cells or particles?
phagocytosis
mesenchymal cells (function)
embryonic stem cells that divide in response to injury to produce new connective tissue?
what type of connective tissue cell?
what type of connective tissue cell?
Mast cell
Mast cells (function)

cells involved in inflammation, abundant alongside blood vessels produce histamine & heparin



What type of cell?
What type of cell?
Plasma cell
Plasma cells (function)
Major defense cells that secrete antibodies
What type of connective tissue cell?
What type of connective tissue cell?
adipocytes
Adipocytes (function)
To store lipids
What type of connective tissue cell?
What type of connective tissue cell?
chondrocyte
Chondrocytes (function)
mature cartilage cells

What specific type of defense cell matures into plasma cells?

lympocytes
What type of connective tissue cell?
What type of connective tissue cell?
Osteocytes
Osteocytes (function)
mature osteoblast/bones
What type of connective tissue cell?
What type of connective tissue cell?

erythrocytes
Erythrocytes (function)
Transport oxygen & carbon dioxide to tissue and lungs
leukocyte
Circulates in the blood and lymph tissues and helps to initiate an immune response
What is the functions of a protein?

structural, storage, contractile, transportation, & enzyme
What is the monomer of proteins?

amino acids
What is a polymer of protein?
polypeptide
What is one or more polypeptides folded into a specific 3-D shape called?

Protein

Fiber is a ____ of protein

macromolecule
What type of connective tissue fiber?
What type of connective tissue fiber?
collagen
Collagen fibers (compose of)

composed of protein collagen



collagen fibers (appearance)
Wavy bundles of collagen that are parallel
Collagen (function)

Strong, flexible & resistant to stretching




Collagen fibers (2 location)
bone & cartlilage
The very thin, not in bundles fiber is?
The very thin, not in bundles fiber is?
elastic fiber
elastic fibers (composed of)

composed of protein elastin
elastic fibers (appearance)
stretch easily, branch, rejoin & appears wavy
Elastic fibers (function)

Allow things to stretch & return to orginal shape



elastic fibers (2 location)
skin & lungs
The branching, interwoven framework fiber is?
The branching, interwoven framework fiber is?
reticular fiber
reticular fibers (composed of)

composed of collagen with glycoprotein coat
reticular fibers (appearance)


spider web, messy & irregular



reticular fibers (function)

form interwoven framework to support organs, attach immune cells, support blood vessels

reticular fibers (2 location)
spleen & lymph nodes
What is the name & function of ground substance macromolecules?


proteoglycans (GAGs): ability to absorb large quantities of water & produce gelatinous ground substance



glycoproteins; adhesion proteins (CT glue)

What are the 3 states of ground substance?

fluid, gelatinous, or solid
What is the ground substance macromolecule composition of bone?

GAGs + calcium + phosphate salts
What are the 6 tissue types of connective tissue proper?


Areolar connective tissue


Adipose connective tissue


reticular connective tissue


dense regular connective tissue


dense irregular connective tissue


elastic connective tissue

What are the 2 tissue types of supporting connective tissue?

Cartilage & bone
What are the 2 tissue types of fluid connective tissue?

Blood & lymph
What are the 3 types of cartilage?

hyaline, fibrocartilage, & elastic cartilage
What are the 2 types of bone connective tissue?

Compact & spongy
What is the name of this connective tissue?
What is the name of this connective tissue?


areolar connective tissue

areolar connective tissue (made up of)

fibroblast, mast cell, macrophages with


collagen, elastic fibers, & reticular fibers with


gelatinous ground substance

Areolar connective tissue (appearance)

scattered fibroblast, macrophage, mast cells with collagen & elastic fibers with a gelantinous ground substance
areolar connective tissue (function)

binds and packs around organs



areolar connective tissue (2 location)

subcutaneous layer of skin, nerves
What is the name of this connective tissue?
What is the name of this connective tissue?
Adipose connective tissue
Adipose connective tissue (made up of)

adipocytes

Adipose connective tissue (appearance)
closely packed adipocytes, nucleus squeezed to one side
Adipose connective tissue (function)

Supports, protects, stores fats, insulates
Adipose connective tissue (2 location)
Henle renal, subcutaneous layer of skin
What is the name of this connective tissue?
What is the name of this connective tissue?
reticular connective tissue
Reticular connective tissue (made up of)

reticular fibers with fibroblasts



Reticular connective tissue (appearance)
Meshwork of reticular fibers with scattered fibroblast
Reticular connective tissue (function)
Provides supportive framework for organs of immune system
Reticular connective tissue (2 location)

spleen, lymph nodes
What type of connective tissue?
What type of connective tissue?
Dense regular connective tissue
Dense regular connective tissue (made up of)

collagen fibers & fibroblasts

Dense regular connective tissue (appearance)

densely packed collagen fibers are parallel to direction of stress. fibroblast nuclei squeezed bwteen layers of fibers, scarce ground substance
Dense regular connective tissue (function)

provides strong attachments between bone to mucsle & bone to bone



Dense regular connective tissue (2 location)

tendons & ligaments
What type of connective tissue?
What type of connective tissue?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Dense irregular connective tissue (made up of)
fibroblast, collagen
Dense irregular connective tissue (appearance)
predominantly collagen, randomly arranged & clumped together with fibroblast in spaces among fibers
Dense irregular connective tissue (function)
Withstands stresses applied in all direction
Dense irregular connective tissue (location)
dermis of skin, pericardium
What is the connective tissue?
What is the connective tissue?
Elastic connective tissue
Elastic connective tissue (made up of)

fibroblast with elastic fibers



Elastic connective tissue (appearance)
Predominately freely branching elastic fibers with fibroblast occuping some spaces between fibers
Elastic connective tissue (function)
resilient, allows stretching
Elastic connective tissue (2 location)

aorta, penis
Attaches muscle to bone?

Tendons
Attaches bone to bone?

ligaments
What type of supporting connective tissue?
What type of supporting connective tissue?
Hyaline cartilage
Hyaline (structure)

lacunae house chondrocytes with glassy-appearing semisolid matrix

Hyaline (function)
flexible
Hyaline (2 locations)

nose & trachea
What type of supporting connective tissue?
What type of supporting connective tissue?
fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage (structure)

lacunae house chondrocytes; no perichondrium, parallel collagen in a semisolid matrix

Fibrocartilage (function)

absorbs shock

Fibrocartilage (2 locations)

intervertebral discs & menisci of knee joints
What type of supporting connective tissue?

What type of supporting connective tissue?
Elastic cartilage
Elastic cartilage (structure)

perichondium present, abundant elastic fibers that form web-like mesh around lacunae, semisolid matric
Elastic cartilage (function)

Maintains structure while permitting extensive flexibility
Elastic cartilage (2 locations)

external ear & epiglottis of larynx
What type of Bone connective tissue?

What type of Bone connective tissue?
Compact Bone
Compact bone (structure)

osteocytes in a calcified matrix arranged in osteons

Compact bone (function)

Support soft structures

Compact bone (2 locations)

exterior of bones

Spongy bone (structure)

osteocytes & hemopoietic cells that arranged in meshwork pattern. contains macroscopoic spaces

Spongy bone (function)
site of hemopoiesis
Spongy bone (location)

interior of bones of the body
What type of fluid connective tissue?

What type of fluid connective tissue?
Blood
Blood (structure)
Combination of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets in fluid matrix with dissolved protein fibers

Blood (function)

Plasma transports & contains clotting elements; RBCs
Blood (2 locations)

within blood vessels & heart
General definition of membranes?

a thin flexible sheet of material
Membrane composed of layers of macromolecules to form a phospholipid bilayer in a cell?
Plasma membrane
Plasma membrane (function)

separates the intercellular components from extracellular environment
Plasma membrane (location)

surrounds the cytoplasm of living cells
Membrane composed of two layers of macromolecules;

basal lamina with collagen fibers & reticular lamina with reticular fiber

basement membranes




Basement membranes (function)

Attaches epithelial tissue to connective tissue
Basement membrane (location)

Where ever epithelial tissue joins with connective tissue
What are the 3 types of epithelial membranes


Cutaneous membranes


mucous membranes


serous membranes



Membrane composed of an epithelial layer of stratified squamous ET & an underlying areolar CT + dense irregular CT.







Cutaneous membranes

Cutaneous membranes (function)

protections of internal organs & prevention water loss

cutaneous membranes (location)
External body surfaces

The membrane with a variety of epithelial tissue


attached to underlying areolar connective tissue called lamina propria.





mucous membrane

mucous membrane (function)

Protection


absorption & secretion


mucous membrane (location)


line body cavities open to outside


digestive, respiratory, urinary & reproductive tracts

Membrane that consist of epithelial tissue of simple squamous and areolar connective tissue;


secretes of viscous fluid within a cavity



serous membrane



Serous membrane (function)

secrete a fluid that lubricates against movement to reduce friction
serous membrane (location)

membrane lining of closed body cavities and their organs



lungs & heart

The epithelial tissue surrounding the lungs, heart chambers & lumen of blood vessels?

endothelium

Name of the epithelial tissue of body cavities?

mesothelium
What are two connective tissue membranes?


synovial membrane


meninges



The areolar connective tissue with goblet cells within a mucous membrane is called?
lamina propria