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35 Cards in this Set

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Advocacy Planning
Develped by Paul Davidoff. Idea that the planner serves an interest group. Plural plans are produced based on goals and needs of various interests
Sherry Arnstein
Develped the "Ladder of Participation" which illustrated the various levels of participation, from no participation to full participation
Design charrette
An intense collaborative effort that brings together citizens, stakeholders, and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area. May be held over one or more days. Effective for quickly developing consensus
This method of participation is an effective method for developing consensus that brings together citizens, stakeholders, and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area
design charrette
Delphi Method
A structured process of participation with the intent of coming to a consensus decision. Method created by US Army Air Force in 1944. Method: a panel of citizens and stakeholders complete a series of questionnaires. Through rounds of questioning and discussion and revision of answers, the range of answers decreases and the group converges toward a solution
This participation process uses a series of questionnaires that through rounds of questioning and feedback on responses, the range of answers decreases and the group converges toward a solution
Delphi Method
Facilitation
A method that uses a person that does not have a direct stake in the outcome of a meeting helps groups to come to a consensus to solve complex problems
This method uses a person who does not have a direct stake in the outcome of a meeting to help a group come to a consensus to solve complex problems.
Facilitation
Mediation
This method is a dispute resolution process that is used to help resolve conflict without involving the court system. A third-party facilitates discussion in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach an agreement
This method is a dispute resolution process that is used to help resolve conflict without involving the court system. A third-party facilitates discussion in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach an agreement
Mediation
Public hearing
Meetings typically associated with the planning commission, city council, or other governing body to allow formal citizen input. Typically mandated by law. Are best used at the end of a process, and are ineffective at building participation or consensus.
These are meetings typically associated with the planning commission, city council, or other governing body to allow formal citizen input. Typically they are mandated by law. Are best used at the end of a process, and are ineffective at building participation or consensus.
Public hearing
Visual preference survey
This participation method uses a variety of pictures depicting the natural and built environments to indicate what a citizen sees as appropriate for their community.
This participation method uses a variety of pictures depicting the natural and built environments to indicate what a citizen sees as appropriate for their community.
Visual preference survey
Technique used when a group has a common goal that they want to implement. Brings together several organizations that work together toward a common goal.
Coalition building
This method is used when stakeholders in a community cannot come to a consensus after other methods of mediation and consensus building have been exhausted
Conflict resolution
This method brings together stakeholders to work together to resolve a conflict that they can all agree on
Consensus building
This person was an early founder of organizing the people for planning. (back of the yards, or grassroots organizing)
Saul Alinsky
1930s
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
Act that put money towards alleviating poverty. This went to fund community action agencies. Required that all programs be conducted and developed with maximum participation of the people in the neighborhood.
This term emerged in planning vocabulary in the 1960s and 1970s. It refers to fair and equal rights for all in terms of spatial issues and social access
Social justice
This book looks at issues of social justice and taking a look at how we think we practice
The Deliberative Practitioner
John Forrester
This method is used so that project beneficiaries can provide insights on how a project will affect them. It is effective when working for the poor or those without political power.
Beneficiary assessment
SARAR
Self-esteem, Associative strength, Resourcefulness, Action planning, and Responsibility. It is a series of techniques designed to be highly visual and accessible to those who cannot read or write. Examples: pocket charts, three pile sorting, pictures stories with gaps
This technique is highly visible and accessible to those who cannot read or write.
SARAR
A participatory process that allows the participants to assess project alternatives by weighing the alternatives according to a group of citizen goals.
Goals-Achievement Matrix
This technique is a large, multi-day event designed to bring people together to agree on changes that are needed in the community.
Appreciative Inquiry Summit
This participatory technique is designed to allow interaction in small groups, but can be witnessed or heard by a large group. The meeting is set up with an inner circle of 5-6 chairs, and the remaining chairs are set up in concentric outer circles. Initially everyone is seated in the outer circles and people who wish to speak move to the inner circle
Samoan Circle

coffee klatch

an intimate yet casual conversation among families, friends, neighbors, and citizens within a community. It may be held at a local coffeehouse or café or community center. A facilitator or leader should be identified to guide the discussion and make it possible for all participants to engage in the meaningful exchange of ideas.

open space

a large-group process that helps participants focus energy on issues or opportunities of interest, and collectively design appropriate courses of action.

consensus conference

originated in Denmark in the 1980s




purpose of consensus conferences is to qualify people’s attitudes, inasmuch as they are given all the information they require until they are ready to assess a given topic

focus group

a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members.




focus groups allow interviewers to study people in a more natural conversation pattern than typically occurs in a one-to-one interview

Audience Response System

Instant polling software used in conjunction with a slide presentation. A USB receiver/base station retrieves the data provided by an audience using wireless hand-held devices and stores this information on the presenter’s computer. Some ARS programs offer the option of participating in the process via personal cellular phones or laptop computers. The most obvious benefit of ARS is the chance to receive instant and accurate feedback from the audience. This feedback is assumed to represent honest opinions because the answers are sent anonymously.

Plebiscite

a vote by which the people of a country or region express their opinion for or against an important proposal

participatory rural appraisal

a group of techniques that allow for the provision and analysis of information by the public. These are typically highly visual including creation of maps or picture cards.

groupware

participation technique that includes a variety of electronic technologies that support virtual collaboration. These techniques use hardware, software, and or internet technology to allow for sophisticated collaboration activities.