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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Alcohol facts

78.0% of Canadians consume alcohol

Beer is most popular

Moderate consumption, associated with heart health

10% report harm, due to drinking

32.7% harmed by someone else’s drinking

Cost of alcohol abuse: $14.6 billion (2002)

Alcohol and the Post-Secondary Student

Most used, misused, abused recreational drug

90% of students consume alcohol

Binge drinking (single sitting):5 drinks for men, 4 for women

Other consumption: alcohol enemas, vodka tampons

Alcohol Rights vs. Responsibilities

Many refuse to acknowledge a “drug”

Society condones consumptioninforms people about drinking responsibly

Often, students’ words, actions (incongruent)especially if excess consumption is the norm

Drinking guidelines (per week)

Men: maximum 14 standard-sized drinks

- 30% report they exceed the guidelines

Women: maximum 9 standard-sized drinks 15% report they exceed the guidelines

Maximum 2-3 drinks per day (women, men)

The Production of Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol or ethanol



Proof: measure of the percent alcohol

Physiological &Behaviour Effects of Alcohol: Behavioural Effects

¤Effectsvary with setting and individual

¤BloodAlcohol Concentration (BAC)

ratio:alcohol to total blood volume

¤Somecan develop learned behaviouraltolerance

modifybehaviour;appear sober, with high BAC

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: Absorptionand Metabolism

Factors that influence absorption:

1. Amount consumed in a given time

2. Size, sex, body build, and metabolism

3. Type and amount of food in stomach

4. Mood

¤Womenand Alcohol

- Higherpercent body fat increases BAC

- Lessenzymes to break down alcohol

¤Breathalyzerand Other Tests

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: ImmediateEffects

Centralnervous system depressant, diuretic

Waterpulled from cerebrospinal fluid = dehydration

Irritantto gastrointestinal system

Hangover(caused by congeners)

¤Druginteractions (prescription or other drugs)

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: ¨Long-TermEffects

¤Effectson the Nervous System



- cirrhosis,hepatitis

¤Cancerand Other Effects

- inflammationof pancreas, decreased nutrient absorption

Physiological &Behaviour Effects of Alcohol : Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

¤Alcohol during pregnancy: developmental, cognitive disabilities

- fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

- fetal alcohol effects (FAE)

¤FASD leading cause of developmental delay

- 1-6,every thousand births

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: Drinking and Driving

¤Impaired driving: major cause of death

¤About 1,350 Canadians killed, annually

¤Injures many more

Alcoholism : Alcohol abuse (alcoholism)

¤Interferes:work, school, relations; violates law

- 6.2%binge drinking, 1+ times per week

- Men,ages 20-35, most likely to binge

Mostcommon areas affected

¤Physical,financial, and social health

Alcoholism: How, Why, Whom?

¤Addiction:tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal

¤Usuallyfrom chronic use, over time

¤Amongpeople, all walks of life

¤10%chance of addiction to alcohol

¤Women:fastest-growing group addicted

Alcoholism: the causes of Alcoholism

¤Biologicand Family Factors

- type1 alcoholics

- type2 alcoholics

¤Socialand Cultural Factors

- peerpressure, emotional or social problems familyattitudes, social factors (e.g. urbanization)

Alcoholism: Recognizing Your Personal Risk

- Neededto cut down on drinking?

- Annoyedby criticism of your drinking?

- Feltguilty about your drinking?

- Feltneed to drink in the morning?

- ‘yes’ to 2+ questions, may havealcohol disorder

Alcoholism: Effects of alcoholism on the family


¤Childrenassume 1+ of the following roles: familyhero




Alcoholism: Costs to Society

¤Over$20 billion in sales (2011)

¤Employs> 14,000 people

¤AverageCanadian spends $712.40 annually Approx.$60.00/month

Alcoholism: Women and Alcoholism

¤More women are drinking

- Almostas many alcoholics as men

¤Alcoholism:starts later, progresses more quickly

¤Receiveless support for treatment, recovery More likely prescribed mood-altering drugs

Alcoholism - Recovery

The Family’s Role

¤Intervention:planned confrontation family/friends express their concerns

Treatment Programs

¤Residential,outpatient, detox, crisis centres

¤Various withdrawal symptoms:

- convulsions, agitation, depression, seizures, delirium tremens

- withdrawal, very difficult and medically risky

TreatmentPrograms (2)

¤Family,Individual, and Group Therapy

¤OtherTypes of Treatment

- drug and aversion therapy; Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

¤Brief Interventions (i.e. less than 5 minutes)


¤60% rate of relapse in first 3 months

Smoking Facts

¤2020,tobacco to kill the most people ¤Canadians smoking less since 1966

¤Number one preventable cause of death

¤Kills 5x more than:

- car accidents, murder, suicide, alcohol

- 17% of all deaths

Smoking - Tobacco and Its Effects

¤Cigarettes,cigars, pipes, snuff, chewing tobacco

¤Smoking:most common form of tobacco nicotineplus 5,000 chemicals

chemicalscondense on lungs, form tar

carbonmonoxide: 800x higher than safe levels

¤PhysiologicalEffects of Nicotine

- stimulatescentral nervous system, adrenal glands

- increasesheart rate, respiratory rate

- constrictsblood vessels = increased blood pressure

- reducesappetite

Smoking – A Learned Behaviour

¤Perception:smoking is a normal behaviour

¤Trying-to-smokingevery day: 2-3 years

¤85%start before age of 16


- aimedat youth, especially young women

- perception:desirable, socially acceptable, healthy, sexy

Smoking - Smokeless Tobacco

Addictive as cigarettes: more nicotine (cigarettes)

Leukoplakia: leathery, white patches inside mouth

Impairs smell, taste; leads to overeating

Dental problems:

receding gums, tooth decay, discoloured teeth

Environmental Tobacco Smoke

¤Two types: mainstream and second hand smoke

¤Passive smokers: from someone else’s smoking - Lungcancer and heart disease

¤Children: greater risk of respiratory problems

¤Smoking illegal in many public places

Smoking -quitting

Breaking the Nicotine Addiction

- One of the toughest addictions

- Irritability,restlessness, intense cravings for tobacco

¤Nicotine replacement products:

- Patch and chewing gum

Breaking the Habit

- Antismoking therapy such as aversion therapy

Benefits of Quitting

- Body repairs immediately: more energy, better sleep

- After 1 year, risk for lung cancer, stroke decrease

- After 10 years, live normal life span


Mostwidely consumed drug in Canada

¤Average:210-238 mg per day

¤Caffeinelevels vary with product

Effects:insomnia, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, nausea, indigestion


To avoid let down, drink more

- develop dependency (caffeinism)

- Coffee withdrawal may cause severe headaches

Caffeine - Energy drinks:

- powerful stimulants

- available in variety of sizes

- various levels of caffeine, sugar, calories

Caffeine - The Health Consequences of Long-Term Caffeine Use

¤Linkedto: heart disease, cancer, mental dysfunction

- birthdefects and high LDL

¤Okay:moderation (less than 3 cups per day)

¤Peoplewith health conditions, be careful irregularheartbeat