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28 Cards in this Set

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Alcohol facts

78.0% of Canadians consume alcohol


Beer is most popular


Moderate consumption, associated with heart health


10% report harm, due to drinking


32.7% harmed by someone else’s drinking


Cost of alcohol abuse: $14.6 billion (2002)

Alcohol and the Post-Secondary Student

Most used, misused, abused recreational drug




90% of students consume alcohol




Binge drinking (single sitting):5 drinks for men, 4 for women




Other consumption: alcohol enemas, vodka tampons

Alcohol Rights vs. Responsibilities

Many refuse to acknowledge a “drug”




Society condones consumptioninforms people about drinking responsibly




Often, students’ words, actions (incongruent)especially if excess consumption is the norm




Drinking guidelines (per week)


Men: maximum 14 standard-sized drinks


- 30% report they exceed the guidelines




Women: maximum 9 standard-sized drinks 15% report they exceed the guidelines




Maximum 2-3 drinks per day (women, men)

The Production of Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol or ethanol


Fermentation


Distillation


Proof: measure of the percent alcohol

Physiological &Behaviour Effects of Alcohol: Behavioural Effects

¤Effectsvary with setting and individual




¤BloodAlcohol Concentration (BAC)


ratio:alcohol to total blood volume




¤Somecan develop learned behaviouraltolerance


modifybehaviour;appear sober, with high BAC

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: Absorptionand Metabolism

Factors that influence absorption:


1. Amount consumed in a given time


2. Size, sex, body build, and metabolism


3. Type and amount of food in stomach


4. Mood




¤Womenand Alcohol


- Higherpercent body fat increases BAC


- Lessenzymes to break down alcohol




¤Breathalyzerand Other Tests

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: ImmediateEffects

Centralnervous system depressant, diuretic




Waterpulled from cerebrospinal fluid = dehydration




Irritantto gastrointestinal system




Hangover(caused by congeners)




¤Druginteractions (prescription or other drugs)

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: ¨Long-TermEffects

¤Effectson the Nervous System


¤CardiovascularEffects


¤LiverDisease


- cirrhosis,hepatitis


¤Cancerand Other Effects


- inflammationof pancreas, decreased nutrient absorption

Physiological &Behaviour Effects of Alcohol : Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

¤Alcohol during pregnancy: developmental, cognitive disabilities


- fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)


- fetal alcohol effects (FAE)



¤FASD leading cause of developmental delay


- 1-6,every thousand births

Physiological &BehaviourEffects of Alcohol: Drinking and Driving

¤Impaired driving: major cause of death



¤About 1,350 Canadians killed, annually



¤Injures many more

Alcoholism : Alcohol abuse (alcoholism)

¤Interferes:work, school, relations; violates law


- 6.2%binge drinking, 1+ times per week


- Men,ages 20-35, most likely to binge




Mostcommon areas affected


¤Physical,financial, and social health



Alcoholism: How, Why, Whom?

¤Addiction:tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal


¤Usuallyfrom chronic use, over time


¤Amongpeople, all walks of life


¤10%chance of addiction to alcohol


¤Women:fastest-growing group addicted

Alcoholism: the causes of Alcoholism

¤Biologicand Family Factors


- type1 alcoholics


- type2 alcoholics




¤Socialand Cultural Factors


- peerpressure, emotional or social problems familyattitudes, social factors (e.g. urbanization)

Alcoholism: Recognizing Your Personal Risk

- Neededto cut down on drinking?


- Annoyedby criticism of your drinking?


- Feltguilty about your drinking?


- Feltneed to drink in the morning?


- ‘yes’ to 2+ questions, may havealcohol disorder

Alcoholism: Effects of alcoholism on the family

¤Dysfunctionalfamilies


¤Childrenassume 1+ of the following roles: familyhero


scapegoat


lostchild


mascot

Alcoholism: Costs to Society

¤Over$20 billion in sales (2011)


¤Employs> 14,000 people


¤AverageCanadian spends $712.40 annually Approx.$60.00/month

Alcoholism: Women and Alcoholism

¤More women are drinking


- Almostas many alcoholics as men



¤Alcoholism:starts later, progresses more quickly



¤Receiveless support for treatment, recovery More likely prescribed mood-altering drugs

Alcoholism - Recovery

The Family’s Role


¤Intervention:planned confrontation family/friends express their concerns



Treatment Programs


¤Residential,outpatient, detox, crisis centres


¤Various withdrawal symptoms:


- convulsions, agitation, depression, seizures, delirium tremens


- withdrawal, very difficult and medically risky



TreatmentPrograms (2)


¤Family,Individual, and Group Therapy


¤OtherTypes of Treatment


- drug and aversion therapy; Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)


¤Brief Interventions (i.e. less than 5 minutes)



Relapse


¤60% rate of relapse in first 3 months


Smoking Facts

¤2020,tobacco to kill the most people ¤Canadians smoking less since 1966


¤Number one preventable cause of death


¤Kills 5x more than:


- car accidents, murder, suicide, alcohol


- 17% of all deaths

Smoking - Tobacco and Its Effects

¤Cigarettes,cigars, pipes, snuff, chewing tobacco




¤Smoking:most common form of tobacco nicotineplus 5,000 chemicals


chemicalscondense on lungs, form tar


carbonmonoxide: 800x higher than safe levels




¤PhysiologicalEffects of Nicotine


- stimulatescentral nervous system, adrenal glands


- increasesheart rate, respiratory rate


- constrictsblood vessels = increased blood pressure


- reducesappetite

Smoking – A Learned Behaviour

¤Perception:smoking is a normal behaviour




¤Trying-to-smokingevery day: 2-3 years




¤85%start before age of 16




¤Tobaccopromotions


- aimedat youth, especially young women


- perception:desirable, socially acceptable, healthy, sexy

Smoking - Smokeless Tobacco

Addictive as cigarettes: more nicotine (cigarettes)



Leukoplakia: leathery, white patches inside mouth



Impairs smell, taste; leads to overeating



Dental problems:


receding gums, tooth decay, discoloured teeth

Environmental Tobacco Smoke

¤Two types: mainstream and second hand smoke


¤Passive smokers: from someone else’s smoking - Lungcancer and heart disease


¤Children: greater risk of respiratory problems


¤Smoking illegal in many public places

Smoking -quitting

Breaking the Nicotine Addiction


- One of the toughest addictions


- Irritability,restlessness, intense cravings for tobacco



¤Nicotine replacement products:


- Patch and chewing gum



Breaking the Habit


- Antismoking therapy such as aversion therapy



Benefits of Quitting


- Body repairs immediately: more energy, better sleep


- After 1 year, risk for lung cancer, stroke decrease


- After 10 years, live normal life span

Caffeine

Mostwidely consumed drug in Canada




¤Average:210-238 mg per day


¤Caffeinelevels vary with product




Effects:insomnia, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, nausea, indigestion

CaffeineAddiction

To avoid let down, drink more


- develop dependency (caffeinism)


- Coffee withdrawal may cause severe headaches





Caffeine - Energy drinks:

- powerful stimulants


- available in variety of sizes


- various levels of caffeine, sugar, calories

Caffeine - The Health Consequences of Long-Term Caffeine Use

¤Linkedto: heart disease, cancer, mental dysfunction


- birthdefects and high LDL




¤Okay:moderation (less than 3 cups per day)




¤Peoplewith health conditions, be careful irregularheartbeat