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22 Cards in this Set

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Baby Boomers
1946-1964...72 Million born - ended when BC pill became widely distributed. They start turning 65 in 2011. Divided into 2 groups depending on who participated in the 60's (those who didnt are known as "generation jones". These are the children of the Greatest generation who came home from WW2 and started having kids. Many convenient inventions and medical breakthroughs during their lifetime
Greatest Generation
Technically 1900-1920's - but includes up to the 1940's (later half is refereed to as the "Silent" generation. Most of these grew up during the Depression and fought in WW2. They tend to be very loyal, rule followers - believe in authority. First to have widespread divorce and women working outside the home.
Lost Generation
Parents of the greatest generation. Fought in WW1 - many died in the war or due to other health problems
"Elderly" groups
Breakdown of retirement ages
Young-old = 55-64
Middle-old = 65-74
Old-old = 74+
65+ groups based on mental, emotional and physical performance
Frisky - 64-74 - expected to be very active and participate in day to day life
Frail 75-85 - health-wise they have a few more issues and are more susceptible to cold/flu
Fragile 85+ - much less time spent in social engangements
Growth of older population
By 2040, 1 in 5 will be 65+ (more the 75 million people) - the most rapid increase will be between 2011 and 2030
85+ group is the most rapidly growing group due to the fact that we have more technology to treat health issues - they also grew up with healthier lifestyles
Why is the elderly group growing so much
~Improved disease prevention
~Health promotion activities like health class starting in elementary school
~Health care technology
Life expectancy
~Increased 15-19 years from the 40's
~Whites and Asians have longer life expectancy
~Latinos and AA's have about 15 less years - likely due to a lack of education about health problems
Social Identity Theory
~Younger people tend to see older people as part of another group
~ older people still see themselves as the younger group and feel more negative towards their actual age group
- we tend to view ourselves as 8-10 yrs. younger then we are and therefore dont identify with our actual age group
Stochastic Theories
~View aging as a series of adverse changes in the cells that lead to replicative errors - it builds up over your lifetime so if you take care of yourself by eating well and exercising then you should age well
~They occur randomly over time
-wear and tear theory
-error theory
-cross link theory
-free radical theory
Wear and Tear Theory
~Stochastic
~Continued use leads to worn our or defective parts of the body
Error Theory
~Stochastic
~concerned with the cumulative mistakes in DNA and RNA with age
~not much research to support this idea
Cross-Link Theory
Deals with the idea that collagen (which is widespread throughout the body) and elastin become very closely packed over time and more rigid. This causes and obvious decrease in flexibility and mobility but also affects the accessibility of white blood cells to fight infection, decreases access to nutrition, inhibits cell growth and reduces the ability to eliminate toxins that are by-products of metabolism
Free Radical Theory
Free radicals are chemical by-products of normal cell metabolism but can also be found in the environment. Usually they are quickly destroyed by antioxidants or protective enzyme systems. However if they build up in the body they cause cell death. As we age we loose our ability to neutralize free radicals due to a loss in antioxidants
Non-stochastic Theories
~Say that aging is caused by replication errors in cells that are intrinsic or pre-programmed
~you have a limited amount of time to live and there is very little you can change
-Programmed Aging Theory
-Immunological Theory
Programmed Aging Theory
A biological or genetic clock may determine the aging process.
The cells in our body are programmed to only reduplicate so many times and then automatically die
Immunological Theory
The thymus gland (a major organ of the immune system) shrinks considerably with age and therefor does not send as many signals for the body to fight off foreign bodies.
With age the body also looses the ability to differentiate between itself and foreign substances and begins to destroy its own tissues
Psychosocial Theories of Aging
-The underlying idea that earlier life event effect later life decisions
-How people fee about themselves as they age
~Maslows hierarchy of basic human needs
~Eriksons stage theory of Development
~Pecks tasks of middle and old age
Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs Theory
Needs are broken up into different levels starting with those necessary for survival. As the needs of each level are met we strive to meet the needs of the next level.
~If an older person is having problems with meeting the needs of the first level(food, water, shelter) then they will have little energy to invest in other things
Eriksons Stage Theory of Development
Proposed the idea that we go through a series of developmental crises that the individual resolves in either a positive direction or a negative direction. These form our ideas and perspectives as we get older
~Ex. the development in a childs first year of the concept of basic trust. Those who are able to get a positive concept of the idea will have a stronger sense of trust later in life
~ideas/concepts can be reversed later in life by going through other related crises and having a different outcome
Sociological theories
interested in the geographic mobility of the elderly in regards to services and how well they can handle the influx of people or deflation
Theories of Successful Aging
~Disengagement Theory - you are supposed to separate from society and family so that they can get used to functioning without you
~Activity Theory- being active - the more you participate (physically, socially, mentally) the better off you are
~Continuity Theory- you don't change completely just because you have aged
~Socioemotional Selectivity Theory- focus more on friendships that give as much as you do. Stick with people who are easy to be with - focus more on close friends and family