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137 Cards in this Set

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Elevated BP without an identified cause, such as sodium, overweight, diabetes, tobacco, alcohol,SNS activity.

Primary Hypertension

HTN with a specific cause the can be identified and corrected


Secondary HTN

Receptors in the aorta which maintain blood pressure?

Baroreceptors

BP over 220/140 indicates what?

HTN Crisis

Encephalopathy, brain hemorrhage, LV failure, MI, renal failure, Aortic aneurysm, and retinopathy are often results of what?

Hypertensive Crisis

Pacemaker of the heart?

Sinoatrial Node

What causes atrial contraction?

SA Depolarization

Where does the signal go after contracting the Atrium?

AV Node

Where does the signal go after the AV Node?

Bundle of His

What comes after the bundle of his

Bundle branches

What does the bundle branches innervate

Purkinje Fibers

What doe the perkinje fibers contract

Ventricles

What valve is between the right atrium and right ventricle?

Tricuspid

What valves prevent blood flow back into ventricles?

Semilunar

What is the valve between the left atrium and ventricle?

Mitral

Stroke volume x Heart rate = ?

Cardiac Output

Intrinsic Rate of the AV node?

40-60 BPM

What connects the atrium and ventricles electrically?

Bundle of His

What is the monitoring lead?

Lead 2

Acure inferior MI would be be seen in what kind of ECG?

Right sided

Drugs that cause bradycardia

Beta BLockers

What part of the heart beat should be loudest?

S2

Where should JVP be assessed

Right jugular

What disease would cause a delayed carotid upstroke

Aortic Stenosis

A greater than normal drop in pressure during inspiration

Paradoxical Pulse

What osculatory area is at the apex

Mitarl

Where is the pulmonic area located

2nd left interspace

WHat valve is at the 2nd right interspace

Aortic Valve

What valve is heart at the lower left sternal border?

Tricuspid

Left sided heart failure or mitral valve regurgitation are often identified how?

S3

What is the other name for the bicuspid valve

Mitral Valve

Heart sound that precedes S1?

S4

CAD, cardiomyopathy, LV hypertrophy, or aortic stenosis may be heard how?

S4

First stage of atherosclerosis?

Fatty Streak

Second stage of atherosclerosis?

Fibrous Plaque

Final stage of atherosclerosis?

Complicated lesion

Pain that doesn't change with position or breathing

Angina

Chest pain that occurs at rest or is worsening

Unstable Angina

Rupture of a plaque?

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Variant angina that occurs at rest in response to spasm of coronary artery

Prinzmetal's Angina

PAin from Prinzmetals angina often occurs when?

During REM sleep

Compression of the heart due to pericardial effusion that leads to chest pain, confusion, pulses paradoxes,, dyspnea?

Cardiac Tamponade

Receptors that increase BP and RR during hypercapnia or acidosis?

Chemoreceptors

Sounds of turbulent blood flood through a compressed artery?

Korotkoff Sounds

The difference between the SPB and the DBP?

Pulse Pressure

The average pressure within the arterial system?

MAP

How do you calculate MAP?

SBP + 2DBP / 3

What MAP is needed to continue perfusing body organs?


60

Decrease in BP after eating?

Postprandial Hypotension

Anticancer agents, antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and tricyclics all cause what effect on the heart?


Dysrythmias

What affect do NSAIDs have on the cardiovascular system

Increased BP

What effect to corticosteriods have on the cardio system?

Hypotension, Edema, Decreased Potassium

What area is right above the aortic area

Angle of Louis

What area is right below the pulmonic area?

Erb's Point

Left ventricular failure is indicated by what sound

S3

Small red to black streaks called splinter hemorrhages are indicative of what?


Endocarditis

Incompetent valves in veins cause what?

Varicose Veins

Pericardial friction rub is caused by what?

Pericarditis

Sustained lifts in the chest area?

Heaves

Protein produced in liver during acute inflammation?

C-Reactive Protein

What should CRP value be?

Less than 1

Troponin I over 2.3 would indicate what?

Myocardial Injury

What should Troponin T level be?

Less than 0.1

Increased Myoglobin would be over what?


90

Amino acid produced during protein catabolism that is a risk for cardiac disease?

Homocysteine

What should homecysteine be at?

3.7-12.9

Peptide that help determine if dyspnea is cardiac or respiratory?

BNP

A BNP over 100 would indicate what?

HEart Failure

What should cholesterol level be?

Less than 200

What should triglyceride levels be?

Less than 150

What should HDL level be?

Greater than 40-50, 60 is good

What should LDL level be?

Less than 100

How do you calculate max HR?


220 - Age

Percentage of blood volume that is ejected during systole, measure with an echocardiogram?

Ejection Fraction

Measuring hourly urine output, Continuous BP monitorying, and assessing for HF are all indicated when giving what for a hypertensive crisis?

Sodium Nitroprusside

What kind of drugs would be initially given for unstable angina?

ACE inhibitor, Antiplatelets, IV Nitroglycerin

Indiviudals at high risk for sudden cardiac death often have what?

Left ventricular Dysfunction

The most important cause of PAD?

Smoking and HTN

Decreased arterial blood flow to the nerves in the feet causes what?


Rest Pain

Sensitivity to cold, gangrenous ulcers on fingertips, and color changes of fingers or toes are all signs of what two things?

?Buerger's Disease or Raynaud's Phenomenon

Sudden severe low back pain and flank bruising would indicate what

Ruptured AAA

What function is essential to monitor after AAA repair

Kidney Function

What is the first priority when there is a suspected dissected aorta?

COntrol BLood Pressure

SMoking and contraceptive use puts you at risk for what?

VTE

What separates the left ventricle and the aorta

Aortic Valve

Hearts ability to alter output in response to exercise or hypovolemia

Cardiac Reserve

The more common name for elevated BP without an identified cause accounting for about 95% of people

Essential Hypertensnion

Ischemic muscle pain precipitated by activity and relieved with rest that is a sign for PVD?

Intermittent Claudication

Earliest manifestation of renal dysfunction?

Nocturia

A cause of secondary hypertension often marked by increased K+ levels

Hyperaldosteronism

Drugs that diminish SNS effects on the BP by inhibiting norepinephrine or blocking adrenergic Receptors

Adrenergic-Inhibiting Agents

Drugs that relax vascular smooth muscle and reduce SVR?

DIrect Vasodilators

Drugs that increase sodium excretion and cause arteriolar vasodilation?

Calcium Channel Blocker

Drugs that prevent conversion of of Angiotension 1 to 2?

ACE Inhibitors

Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers are known as what?

ARBs

Initial THerapy for hypertension

Thiazide Diuretics

Common side effect of ACE inhibitors

Cough

Serious side effect of K sparing diuretics and ACE inhibitors

Hyperkalemia

Decrease of 20 mmhg when standing and increase of 20 bpm upon standing

Orthostatic Hypotension

How much should the MAP be decreased in the first hour during a hypertensive crisis?

25%

What carries lipids away from arteries to the liver?

HDL

How should exercise be done to prevent CV disease

30 minutes 5 times per week

Most widely used cholesterol meds?

Statins (Lovastatin, pravavastin, zocor, lipitor, crestor)

Statin drug that decreases cholesterol absorption?

Zetia

Angina while laying that is relieved by standing

Angina Decubitus

Orthostatic Hypotension, pounding headache, tachycardia, dizziness will occur after taking what drug

Nitroglycerin

Long acting nitrates?

Imdur, Isordil

Drugs that decrease myocardial contractility, HR, and BP?


Beta Blocker

People with asthma should avoid what heart meds?

Beta blockers

Procardia, verapamil, and diltiazem are what kind of drug?

Calcium Channel Blockers

What kind of heart meds particularly help people with DM?

ACE Inhibitors

Drugs used for pharmacological nuclear imaging and echocardiography?

Adenosine, Dobutamine

Most common complication after MI?

Dysrhythmias

A common cause of sudden cardiac death within first 4 hours of pain associated with MI

Ventricular Fibrillation

What kind of drugs are used to treat non-infective pericarditis, such as friction rub?

NSAIDs, corticosteroids

When does CK peak after MI?

24 hours

How is prinzmetals angina confirmed

Coronary angiography

Dissolving thrombus is coronary artery?

Fibrinolytic Therapy

Checking blood pressure on the ankle and the wrist to assess risk for PAD?

Ankle Brachial Index

What is a normal ankle brachial index?

0.91-1.3

Opening and artery and removing the obstructive plaque?

Endarterectomy

Anemia caused by lack of B12 or folic acid?

Megaloblastic Anemia

Lack of vitamin B12 secondary to low production of intrinsic factor by gastric cells?

Pernicious Anemia

How is pernicious Vitamin B12 treated

IM B12 injections

Epogen, procrit, aranesp are all what kind of drugs?

I

Erythropoises Stimulating Agents

Ferrous gluconate, ferrous sulfate, slow FE, iron dextran, and venofer are all drugs used to treat what?

Iron deficiency Anemia

Pressure on the heart due to fluid buildup?

Cardiac Tamponade

Doxazosin and terazosin are what kind of drugs

Alpha 1 Blocker

Clonidine is what kind of drug

Alpha 2 blocker

What kind of drug is carvedilol (Coreg)

Alpha and Beta BLocker

Hydralazine and minoxidil are what kind of drugs

Vasodilators

Amodarone, diltiazem, and propanolol are what kind of drugs

Antiarrhythmic Agents

What drug can't be taken with viagra?

Nitro

Direct Vasodilators are typically only used for what

Hypertensive Crisis

Drug used for a dissecting aortic aneurysm

Ganglionic blockers


(Trimethaphan (Arfonad)

What kind of drugs reduce effectiveness of ACE inhibitors?

NSAIDs, aspirin

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