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36 Cards in this Set

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Superior
Anatomical term meaning higher or toward the head; opposite of inferior
Supination
Rotating into a supine position (e.g., turning the palms to face forward)

Opposite of pronation
Supine
The position of the body when lying face upward
Sympathetic nervous system
A division of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body to cope with some stressor (i.e., fight or flight response)
Syncope
A transient state of unconsciousness during which a person collapses to the floor as a result of lack of oxygen to the brain; commonly known as fainting
Synergist
A muscle that assists another muscle in its function
Synovial fluid
Transparent, viscous lubricating fluid found in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths
Systole
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle during which blood leaves the ventricles
Systolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions
Talk test
A subjective method for measureing exercise intensity using observation of respiration effort and the ability to talk while exercising
Target heart rate (THR)
The number of heartbeats per minute that indicate appropriate exercise intensity levels for an individual; also called training heart rate
Tendinitis
Inflammation of a tendon
Tendon
Strong, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
Thrombosis
The formation, development or presence of a blood clot (thrombus)
Torque
A force causing rotation about a fixed axis of rotation; the act or process of turning around on an axis
Training heart-rate range
Target heart rate represented as a range of numbers
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Momentary dizziness, loss of consciousness, or forgetfulness caused by a short-lived lack of oxygen (blood) to the brain; usually due to a partial blockage of an artery, it is a warning sign for a stroke
Tranverse plane
Anatomical term for the imaginary line that divides the body, or any of its parts, into superior and inferior parts; also known as the horizontal plane
Triglyceride
The storage form of fat consisting of three fatty acids and glycerol
Tuberosity
A projection or protuberance on a bone usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments
Type 1 diabetes
Form of diabetes caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, which leads to little or no insulin secretion; generally develops in childhood and requires regular insulin injections; formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and childhood-onset diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Most common form of diabetes; typically develops in adulthood, is characterized by a reduced sensitivity of the insulin target cells to available insulin and is usually associated with obesity; formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and adult-onset diabetes
Valsalva maneuver
Forcefully attempting to exhale while preventing air from escaping
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the vessel
Vasodilation
Increase in diameter of the blood vessels, especially dilation of arterioles leading to increased blood flow to a part of the body
Vasodilator
An agent (motor nerve or drug) that acts to relax (dilate) a blood vessel
Vegan
A pure vegetarian who excludes all animal-derived foods from the diet
Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood, usually deoxygenated, to the heart
Venous return
Return to the heart of the circulatory fluids by way of the veins
Ventricle
One of the two (left or right) lower chambers of the heart. The muscular left ventricle pumps blood to the body; the smaller right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs
Venule
A very small vessel that collects blood from the capillaries and connects to the veins
Viscoelastic
A combination of elastic and plastic properties found in all connective tissue
Vitamins
Organic compounds that function as metabolic regulators in the body; classified as water soluble or fat soluble
Waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR)
A measure for determining health risk due to the site of fat storage; taken by dividing the abdominal girth (waist measurement) by the hip measurement to form a ratio
Water soluble
Dissolvable in water; relating to vitamins, those that require adequate daily intake since the body excretes excesses in the urine
Wolff's law (of bone remodeling)
Principle stating that bone is capable of adjusting is strength in proportion to the amount of stress placed on it