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27 Cards in this Set

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Who proposed the matching hypothesis?

Walster 1966

What does Walster (1966) say we match up in terms of what?

Social standing


Intelligence


Physical attraction

Who added on to Walsters hypothesis and what did they say?

Murstein (1972)- physical attraction is a determinant factor or early stages of relationships. We judge everyone based on their looks.

What does the theory further state about making realistic choices?

We look at the probability of them saying yes! Walster also says those who are similarly matched are likely to have longer relationships that mismatched.

What was Walster's (1966) study called?

Dance study

How many pps were in the dance study?

752

How were the pps deceived in the dance study?

They were led to believe that they were matched by a computer.

How was the dance study subjective?

An observer rated them in terms of physical attraction.

How many hours later was the pps asked home might they liked their partner? (Dance study)

Two hours

What did the findings show?


(Dance study)

That pps did not choose their equals, they went for the most attractive ones. Males asked out good looking girls, even when they were not. Showing that PA is important in match making.

State the strengths and weakness of the dance study.

Large sample


Lack ecological validity


Population/age bias


Pps were deceived


Subjective

How did Silverman (1971) support the hypothesis and how did he prevent subjectiveness?

Investigated into real life couples and had more than one judge rating attractiveness. They found that attractiveness was similar in couples.

What research corroborated Silvermans (1971) reserach?

Murstein (1972)-found the same results.

What piece of research suggest that the second half of the hypothesis may hold true?

Cavior and Boblett- stronger matching couples, had longer/happier relationship.

Name and explain the reserach that suggest that matching is complex.

Hatfield and specher- other desirable traits may compensate for a lack of physical attractiveness e.g. Attractive personality, status, money etc.

How can the role of a third party influence the formation of relationship?

Hatfield and sprecher- third parties consider compatibility as they determine the suitable matches. E.g. Arrange marriages- parents make decisions as they feel that the child's judgement may be clouded emotions

How has gender difference taken effect on the hypothesis?

Takeuchi (2006)- PA is heavily valued by men, less by women. Men are likely to compensate for any defect in PA with other desirable qualities.

Who proposed the reward/need satisfaction model?

Byrne and Clore (1970)

What are the two types of conditioning in the reward/need satisfaction model?

Operant and classical

What are the two reinforcements in operant conditioning?

Positive and negative

What does positive reinforment state?

Argyle (1994)-if we have our needs met will satisfy basic needs such as sex, self-esteem (through being valued) etc.

What does negative reinforcement state

Removing the negativity. Helps us escape a state sad through comfort e.g. A rebound after a break up. Argyle states that people who are rewarding are most liked.

What does classical conditioning state?

We like someone as we associate them with something pleasant.

What study supports the classical conditioning theory? And what did they do?

May and Hamilton (1980)- women rated men's pictures higher when they were listening to pleasant music. Cunningham (1988) also found this link.

How is Hayes (1985) a limitation of the R/NSM.

Show shows that couples value equity, not only selfish rewards.

What research suggests that not all relationships are rewarding?

Hill (1972)- found that kinship relationships are not rewarding and mainly formed in non-western cultures.

What research suggests that women care less about having their needs met?

Research states that women care more about meeting others needs, not getting their needs met (limitation). However meeting others needs may be reward in itself.