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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
thoracic cavity
(divided into)
two lateral compartments (pulmonary cavities containing lungs and pleurae)
central compartment (mediastinum containing other thoracic structures)
thoracic cavity
(lateral compartments contains)
pulmonary cavities containing lungs and pleurae
thoracic cavity
(central compartment contains)
mediastinum containing other thoracic structures besides lungs and pleurae
Pleurae
(what, surrounds)
serous membrane which surrounds lungs and lines pulmonary cavities - continuous sac
Pleurae
(2 types)
visceral pleurae
parietal pleurae
visceral pleurae
(tightly adheres to)
outer surface of lungs
parietal pleurae
(lines)
pulmonary cavities
parietal pleurae
(parts)
costal pleurae
diaphragmatic pleurae
mediastinal pleurae
cervical pleura (cupula)
cervical pleura
(aka)
cupula
lines of pleural reflection
(name them)
costal reflection
sternal reflection
vertebral reflection
lines of pleural reflection
(what)
where parietal pleura changes direction abruptly from one wall of pleural cavity to another
costal reflection
costal with diaphragmatic
sternal reflection
costal with mediastinal anteriorly
vertebral reflection
costal with mediastinal posteriorly - more gradual
endothoracic fascia
(separates)
separates costal pleura from inner surface of thoracic wall
pleural cavity
(type of space, between, contains)
potential space
between layers of pleura
contains pleural fluid
pleural fluid
(what)
lubrication
surface tension
recesses
(created b/c)
lungs don't completely fill space
recesses are spaces in pleura without lung
recesses
(name them)
costodiaphragmatic recess
costomediastinal recess
pulmonary collapse
pneumothorax
hemothorax
pleuritis
thoracentesis
pp 120-122
pleura blood supply
visceral pleura -
bronchial arteries, pulmonary veins
parietal pleura -
intercostal arteries
internal thoracic arteries
musculophrenic arteries
veins similar
visceral pleura
(blood supply and drainage)
bronchial arteries, pulmonary veins
parietal pleura
(blood supply and drainage)
intercostal arteries
internal thoracic arteries
musculophrenic arteries
veins similar
visceral pleura
(lymphatic drainage to)
to hilar lymph nodes at root of lung
parietal pleura
(lymphatic drainage to)
to nodes of thoracic wall
(intercostal, parasternal, mediastinal, phrenic)
visceral pleura innervation
(type, from)
all autonomic
from pulmonary plexus (vagus nerve and sympathetics)
parietal pleura innervation
(type, from)
***pain sensation*** (sensory afferents)
intercostal and phrenic nerves
pleural pain
pg. 125
Lungs
(role)
oxygenate blood by bringing inspired air into close contact with blood in pulmonary capillaries
lungs
(characteristics)
normally light, soft, and spongy
lung appearance
(pg. 122-123)
pg. 122-123
root of lung
(connects)
lung with heart and trachea
Hilum
(what, location, what happens here)
depression on medial surface of lung
vessels and airways enter and leave
(main bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins, bronchial vessels, lymph vessels, nerves)
root of lung
(enclosed by)
pleural sleeve
pulmonary ligament
(characteristics)
double layer of parietal pleura hanging from root of lung
Root of lung
(what passes anterior)
*LAB
phrenic nerve
root of lung
(what passes posterior)
*LAB
vagus nerve
Apex
(what, location*)
superior part of lung
ascends above 1st rib into root of neck (extends above clavicle, up into neck region)
Apex of lung (location)
ascends above 1st rib into root of neck
injuries to cervical pleura and apex
p. 120
stab in neck region could lead to collapsed lung
Lungs
3 surfaces
costal surface
mediastinal surface
diaphragmatic surface
costal surface of lungs
(location, characteristics)
adjacent to sternum, costal cartilages, ribs
large, smooth, convex
mediastinal surface
(includes _, related to _ and _, shape, impressions for)
includes hilum
related to mediastinum and sides of vertebrae
concave
impressions for aorta, heart, esophagus, azygos vein, brachiocephalic vein
diaphragmatic surface
(location, resting on _, shape)
base of lung
resting on diaphragm
concave (right side has deeper concavity)
Lungs
(3 borders)
anterior border
inferior border
posterior border
anterior border of lungs
(location, left side has)
where costal and mediastinal surfaces meet anteriorly and overlap heart
*cardiac notch on left side
inferior border
(location)
where diaphragmatic surface meets costal and mediastinal surfaces
posterior border
(location)
where costal and mediastinal surfaces meet posteriorly
Left lung
(# of lobe(s) and fissure(s))
2 lobes
superior
inferior
1 fissure
oblique
left lung
characteristics
2 lobes - superior and inferior
1 fissure - oblique
superior lobe has cardiac notch and lingula
cardiac notch and lingula
(located on (be specific))
superior lobe of left lung
For anterior view of lungs, usually see what lobe of lung
(impo in stab wounds)
superior lobe on left lung
superior and middle lobe on right lung
For posterior view of lungs, usually see what lobe of lungs
(impo in stab wounds)
mostly inferior lobe for both lungs
Lungs
surface projections
At MCL - Rib 6
At MAL - Rib 8
At scapular line - Rib 10
Pleural reflections
surface projections
At MCL - Rib 8
At MAL - Rib 10
At scapular line - Rib 12
thoracentesis
(usually performed where)
MAL b/w rib 8-10
where does trachea divide?
at sternal angle
Bronchi
(name them)
Main (primary) bronchi
right primary bronchus
left primary bronchus
bronchial tree
lobar (secondary) bronchi
segmental (tertiary) bronchi
bronchopulmonary segments
main (primary) bronchi
(where bifurcate, enter lung at _, divisions)
bifurcates from trachea at carina at level of sternal angle
enter lung at hilum
right primary bronchus
left primary bronchus
bronchoscopy
pg. 123
right primary bronchus
(characteristics compared to left)
wider
shorter
more vertical
aspiration - pg. 123
stuff more likely to get stuck in which primary bronchus? why?
right b/c more vertical, wider, shorter
left primary bronchus
(pathway to get to lung)
passes inferior to arch of aorta
anterior to esphagus
anterior to thoracic aorta
to get to lung
bronchial tree
(location, _ in wall of larger airways, contains)
within lung
cartilage
contains:
lobar (secondary) bronchi
segmental (tertiary) bronchi
bronchopulmonary segments
lobar (secondary) bronchi
(# on each side of lung)
2 on left
3 on right
(one for each lobe)
segmental (tertiary) bronchi
(divide into)
bronchopulmonary segments
bronchopulmonary segments
(shape, apex toward _, base at _, # on each side, each contains _)
pyramidal-shaped lung segment
apex toward root of lung
base at pleural surface
10 on right
8-10 on left
each contains own segmental bronchus and blood supply
bronchi
(# of generations of branches after the segments)
20-25 (bronchioles?)
Blood supply to lungs
(name)
right and left pulmonary arteries
2 right pulmonary veins
2 left pulmonary veins
bronchial arteries
right and left pulmonary arteries
(from, carry, divide into)
from right ventricle via pulmonary trunk
carry poorly oxygenated blood to lungs
divide into lobar, segmental, and smaller branches
right and left pulmonary arteries
(location in root)
tend to be higher in root
pulmonary veins
(# total, # on each side, carry, begin as, location in root)
4 total
2 on left
2 on right
carry well-oxygenated blood
begin as capillaries in lung
tend to be lower in root
bronchial arteries
(from, supply)
usually from thoracic aorta
supply structures in root of lung, and bronchi
bronchial veins
(drain, into)
drain part of bronchial blood
into azygos system
some bronchial blood also drained by _
pulmonary veins
lymphatic drainage of lungs
(pathway)
superior lymphatic plexus drains surface of lungs toward bronchopulmonary (hilar) lymph nodes > tracheobronchial nodes > bronchomediastinal trunks
Deep lymphatic plexus - associated with bronchi - drain into pulmonary lymph nodes along lobar bronchi > hilar nodes > tracheobronchial nodes > bronchomediastinal trunks
superficial lymphatic plexus
(drains, toward _ to _ to _)
drains surface of lungs
toward bronchopulmonary (hilar) lymph nodes to tracheobronchial nodes to bronchomediastinal trunks
deep lymphatic plexus
(associated with _, drain into _, then to _ to _ to _)
associated with bronchi
drain into pulmonary lymph nodes along lobar bronchi
then to hilar nodes to tracheobronchial nodes to bronchomediastinal trunks
bronchogenic carcinoma
p. 125
Lungs
innervation
Pulmonary plexuses
vagus
sympathetic
Lungs - innervation
vagus
(type, to)
parasympathetic to bronchoconstrictors, vasodilators, secretomotor
visceral afferent to cough reflexes, stretch reception, etc.
Lungs - innervation
sympathetic
(to)
bronchodilators
vasoconstrictors
inhibitory to glands
mediastinum
(what, extends from _ to _ and from _ and _ to _)
central compartment of thoracic cavity (does NOT contain lungs)
extends from superior thoracic aperture to diaphragm
and from sternum and costal cartilages to bodies of thoracic vertebrae
mediastinum
(contains)
thoracic viscera (many hollow)
loose CT
vessels
lymph nodes
nerves
fat - mobile - accommodates movement, volume, and pressure changes
mediastinum
(divisions)
superior mediastinum
inferior mediastinum
divides to:
anterior, middle, posterior
superior mediastinum
(boundaries)
from superior thoracic aperture to diaphragm and
from sternum and costal cartilages to bodies of thoracic vertebrae
superior mediastinum
(contains)
great vessels of heart
thymus
esophagus
trachea
thoracic duct
inferior mediastinum
(location)
from sternal angle and IV disc T4-T5 to diaphragm
anterior mediastinum
(contains)
thymus
middle mediastinum
(contains)
pericardium
**heart
roots of great vessels
posterior mediastinum
(contains)
esophagus
thoracic aorta
azygos veins
Can structures in the mediastinum be in more than one compartment?
yes
ex: esophagus, aorta
levels of viscera
widening of mediastinum
classic anatomical description vs. clinical description
p 132 - assume supine
p 133 - could be enlarged heart