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50 Cards in this Set

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When conducting a METWATCH, as a minimum you must consider timing,

location, and forecast values.

A major difference between a METWATCH and MISSIONWATCH is that a

METWATCH focuses on a broad area, with general interest.

When a weather flight conducts a METWATCH, which of the following tools best identifies weather patterns that normally cause poor weather conditions?

Regional Analysis and Forecast Program (RAFP).

Regarding a weather warning for winds greater than 50 knots, which of the following statements best defines the term minimum desired lead time?

The amount of advanced notice a customer requires before the event occurs.

Which organization is responsible for monitoring weather conditions for warning-meeting criteria while weather units are closed and unmanned?

Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA).

How much energy does the sun manufacture per second?

3.85 × 10^26 watts.

The basic energy source for the sun is

the fusion of hydrogen into helium.

Which layer of the sun contains one-half of the solar mass?

Core.

In which of the sun’s layers do large temperature gradients form because atoms absorb
energy?

Convection zone.

Which layer of the sun is visible from earth when we look at the sun with our eyes?

Photosphere.

The continual, outward flow of energetic charged particles from the sun is called the solar

wind.

The name given to the darkest area at the center of a sunspot is

umbra.

Generally, solar bursts are most common during

solar maximum.

What is the prime cause of solar activity?

Solar flares.

Which solar features are ribbon-like, suspended above the chromosphere by the magnetic
field, and comparable to clouds on earth?

Filaments.

When is the greatest potential for large solar flares to occur?

2 to 3 years following a solar maximum.

The overall polarity of the sun’s northern and southern hemispheres reverse every

11 years.

The unit of measurement used to identify the strength of a magnetic field is the

gauss.

Clouds of gases suspended above the chromosphere which appear as dark, ribbon-like
features on the solar disk are called

filaments.

Which solar feature is formed by the condensation of material from the hot corona?

Loop prominence.

How many discrete (fixed) frequencies can the radio telescope simultaneously sample for radio emissions from the chromosphere and corona?

8.

The solar radio spectrograph (SRS) monitors solar emissions over a megahertz (MHz) frequency range of

25 to 180 MHz.

On what part of the electromagnetic spectrum does the most intense energy fall?

Visible.

The type of radiation that causes ionization of molecules in the upper atmosphere is

X-ray.

Which type of radiation causes ionization of upper atmospheric atoms and molecules and results in the heating of the upper atmosphere?

Ultraviolet

Which type of radiation has the least application in the space environment?

Ultraviolet

What is the term used to identify the area between the sun and the planets?

Interplanetary medium.

The tails of comets that always point away from the sun show the influence of the

solar wind.

What is the interface called that separates interplanetary space from the magnetosphere?

Magnetopause

Which atmospheric layer serves as the primary reservoir of atoms/molecules that may be
heated and/or ionized by the sun’s ultraviolet radiation?

Thermosphere

Where are the floating electrons created that make up the ionosphere?

Mesosphere and thermosphere.

Which atmospheric layer contains sharp horizontal and vertical electron density gradients?

Ionosphere.

What phenomena is a dynamic and delicate visual manifestation of solar-induced
geomagnetic storms?

Aurora.

The term used to describe the event in which earth is showered with energetic solar particles
released from a solar flare site is

proton event.

The mechanism by which charged solar particle streams disrupt the magnetosphere and
adversely affect radar, communications, and space operations is

a geomagnetic storm.

Which solar-geophysical sensor detects cosmic radio noise at a frequency of 30 megahertz (MHz)?

Riometer.

Which solar-geophysical sensor acts like a radar and transmits radio energy vertically over a
range of 2 to 30 megahertz (MHz), or between any two frequencies within this range?

Ionospheric sounder.

Which solar-geophysical sensor measures the absolute total electron content (TEC) by analyzing the signals from global positioning system (GPS) satellites?

Transionospheric sensor.

What is the impact of electron density gradients within the ionosphere on single frequency or dual frequency global positioning system (GPS) navigation?

Positional accuracy is degraded.

When a satellite orbiting the magnetosphere is bombarded by energetic protons from the sun, the satellite’s star sensor

falsely interprets light flashes caused by collisions as stars and the satellite loses attitude control.

What impact will atoms and molecules from lower altitudes, expanding upward into the orbit altitudes of satellites, have on the spacecraft?

Frictional drag will increase, possibly causing a loss of altitude.

What is the impact of electrically charged particles from the sun that penetrate into the mid to upper stratosphere?

Radiation hazard to aircrews of high altitude flight.

How long after a solar flare does it usually take for low to medium energy particles to arrive at earth?

2 to 4 days.

What term is used to describe rapid, random variation in signal amplitude, phase, and/or polarization caused by small-scale irregularities in the electron density along a signal’s path?

Scintillation.

During a 24-hour day, when do the majority of satellite problems occur due to geomagnetic storms?

Midnight to dawn

Which Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) weather and environmental unit provides weather services for all Department of Defense (DOD) and civilian space and ballistic missile launch operations on the Western Range?

30th Weather Squadron.

Which organization operates the worldwide Solar Electro-optical Network (SEON)?

2d Weather Squadron Space Weather Operations Center.

Which agency collects data and issues space environmental forecasts for non-Department of Defense (DOD) agencies?

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The Space Weather Prediction Center receives energetic particle and other geophysical data from the

Geosynchronous operational environmental satellite (GOES) spacecraft.

Which bulletin, produced by Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) Space Weather Operations Center, provides notice that certain high-frequency (HF) communications frequencies may become unusable during daylight conditions due to a sudden burst in the sun’s X-ray radiation?

WOXX50 KGWC.