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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
negatively charged particles in an atom are
electrons
protons and neutrons are found in the
nucleus
a ____ bond forms between two atoms sharing electrons
convalent
substance with a pH lower than 7
acid
substance with a pH higer than 7
base
long chains of nucleotides are called
nucleic acid
portion of an enzyme molecule into which a specific substrate can fit is called the
active site
a cell with a well-defined nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope
eukaryotic cell
all substances that enter or leave a cell must cross the cell
membrane
proteins that aid in moving substances into and out of the cell are called
carrier proteins
The ____ houses a cell's DNA, which contains heredity information
nucleus
The organelles that are the site of protein synthesis in a cell are called
ribosomes
Photosynthesis take place in the _____ of plant cells
chloroplasts
Both plant cells and animal cells have cell membranes. In addition, plant cells are surrounded by a _____
cell wall
The random motion of a substance that causes the substance to move from an are of high concentration to an area of low concentration is called
diffusion
The diffusion of _____ through cell membranes is called osmosis
water
When the concentration of free water molecules is higher outside a cell than inside the cell, water will diffuse ___ the cell.
into
If cell is placed in a _____ solution, water will flow out of the cell.
hypertonic
If cell is placed in a ___ solution, water will flow into the cell.
hypotonic
If a cell is placed in an ____ solution, water flows into the cell at a rate that is equal to the rate at which water flows out of the cell.
isotonic
In facilitated diffusion,___ proteins are used to transport substances down their concentration gradient
transport
In ___ ___, carrier proteins do not require energy to transport amino acids into a cell.
facilitated transport
Active transport require the use of ___ by a cell.
ATP
Nutrients exiting
exocytosis
Nutrients entering
endocytosis
The ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth in the
sun
Energy from the sun enters living systems through ___ such as plants and certain bacteria.
producers
Heterotrophs get energy from food through the process of ____ _____.
cellular respiration
Ther energy currency of a cell is know as ___
ATP
During the first stage of photosynthesis, ___ ____ is absorbed by chlorophyll.
light reactions
During the second stage of photosynthesis, the electron transport chain transfers light energy to two molecules, ___ and ____.
NADPH and ATP
Glucose is split into smaller molecules during a biochemical pathway called
glycolysis
During the first stage of cellular respiration, glucose is converted to
pyruvate
During the second stage of cellular repiration, pyruvate enters ____ where ATP will be produced.
mitochondria
In the absence of oxygen, instead of aerobic respiration following glycolysis, glycolysis is followed by
fermentation
Binary ____ is the process by which bacteria split asexually into two identical organisms.
fission
Following replication of its DNA, each chromosome contains two ____, which are attached to each other by a centromere.
chromatids
Chromosomes that are not involved in sex determination are called
autosomes
The X and Y chromosomes are called the ____ chromosomes
sex
Time spent in G1 + S + G2
interphase
A cell's DNA is copied during the ____ phase.
synthesis
Cells that are not dividing remain in the __ phase
G1
In mitosis, anaphase follows
metaphase
Chromosomes coil up and become visible during
prophase
Chromatids migrate toward poles as spindle fibers shorten during
anaphase
In plant cells, a ____ _____ forms in the center of the cells during cytokinesis
cell plate
A reciprocal exchange of corresponding segments of DNA is called ___-___.
crossing-over
The patterns that Mendel discovered form the basis of ____, the branch of biology that deals with heredity.
genetics
The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called
heredity
Different forms of a particular gene are called
alleles
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is called
homozygous
The set of alleles an organism has inherited
genotype
The external apperance of an organism as determined by what alleles are present is
phenotype
A DNA subunit composed of phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base is called a
nucleotide
The name of the five-carbon sugar that make up a part of the backbone of molecules of DNA is
deoxyribose
Watson and Crick determined that DNA molecules have the shape of a
double helix
The process by which DNA copies itself is called
replication
The enzyme that is responsible for replicating molecules of DNA by attaching complementary bases in the correct sequence is called
DNA polymerase
Nitrogen containing base that is only found in RNA
Uracil
Messenger RNA is produced during the process of
transcription
During translation, amino acids are brought to the ribosomes by molecules of
transfer RNA
Nucleotide sequences of tRNA that are complementary to codons on mRNA are called
anticodons
The sequence of three nucleotides that code for specific amino acids or stop signals in the synthesis of protein is called a
codon
The information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA is used to make protein during the process of
translation
The form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes is
mRNA
A ______ consists of all the individuals of a particular species in a particular place.
population
The way in which members of a population are arranged in a given area is referred to as
density
The population size that can be sustained by an environment
carrying capacity
The physical area in which an organism lives
habitiat
The living organisms in a habitat are called ____ factors.
biotic
Animals know as _____ eat only primary producers
herbivores
Bacteria that breaks down dead tissue
decomposers
A path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem
food chain
Interrelated food chains in an ecosystem are called
food web
The general term for the biotic relationship in which one organism benefits and another is often harmed but not killed
Parasitism
Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor suffers harm
commensalism
A close relationship between two dissimilar organisms in which one organism usually benefits
symbiotic
A fish called a cleaner wrasse eats the tiny parasites that cling to and feed upon much larger fish. Therefore, the cleaner wrasse has a ______ relationship with the larger fish
mutualisitic
A ____ describes the habitat, feeding habitats, other aspects of an organism's biology, and its interactions with other organisms and the environment.
niche
Major biological community that occurs over a large area of land
biome