Essay on High Risk Pregnancy

2184 Words Apr 26th, 2009 9 Pages
High Risk Pregnancy
-pregnant with a concurrent medical disease
-with pregnancy related complication
-presence of external factor that jeopardizes the health of the mother, the fetus, or both

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Candidiasis (Moniliasis)
INCIDENCE:
• 75% of women will have at least 1 episode of VVC with 40-45% having 2 or more episodes
ETIOLOGIC AGENT: • Candida albicans, Candida glabrata

MODE OF TRANSMISSION normal flora of the skin & vagina not considered as sexually transmitted
RISK FACTOR for Candida overgrowth -pregnancy -use of OCPs -prolonged antibiotic use -Diabetes -Iron deficiency anemia -use of immunosuppresants/ immunologically
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-Fluorescent Monoclonal Antibody Test
-Enzyme immunoassay
-Rapid Chlamydial Test (Elisa)
Culture Test - ID the intracytoplasmic inclusion in cells

TREATMENT:
-Azithromycin 1 g single dose
-Amoxicillin 500 mg TID x 7 days
-Erythromycin base 500 mg QID x 7 days
SPECIAL CONCERNS:
-All sex partners should be tested for genital tract infections & treated accordingly persons w/ chlamydia should avoid sexual contact until after the 7 day treatment has been completed
Prevention: abstinence, mutual monogamous relationship, route of delivery - vaginal is preferred

Adverse pregnancy outcomes:
-early & late spontaneous abortion
-premature delivery
-PROM
-intrauterine infection
-postpartum endometritis/salpingitis
-ectopic pregnancy
-An infant who is born from a mother w/ chlamydial infection can suffer from conjunctivitis of pneumonia after birth

Syphilis
-a serious systemic bacterial infection
PREVALENCE:
-in US: 17.4 cases / 100,000 population
-most occur in men & women aged 15-40 yrs highest infection rates = aged 20-29 years
-Seroprevalence rate of syphylis among pregnant women in Fabella Hospital (1999) = 0.8%
ETIOLOGIC AGENT: Treponema pallidum
-a labile organism that cannot survive drying or exposure to disinfectants
-solely a human pathogen

MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
-by penetration of the spirochetes through mucosal membranes (vagina, mouth or rectum) & abrasions on epithelial surfaces (a cut or break in the skin)
-primarily spread through

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